Photographs & History

Photographs and History

Lecture Next Week | Harrisburg Chapter NRHS

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I am happy to announce that I’ll be presenting  a slide show and discussion on my ongoing photographic project, From the Main Line: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad for the Harrisburg Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890’s to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR Main Line from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. Using large format film based images this project combines historical research and imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most celebrated railroads in American history for both exhibition and web format. Attendees will also be treated to some of the recent commission work I have been doing for Conrail Shared Assets and some behind the scenes insight on the production of a long term video and time lapse documentation project.

The NRHS was founded in 1935 by a group of rail historians. It has since grown from 40 founding members to include over 13,000 men and women of all ages and professions in every state and many foreign countries, making it the nation's largest rail preservation and historical society. The Harrisburg Chapter is one of roughly 160 around the country, and widely recognized for its remarkable and innovative preservation efforts including the restoration of Harris Tower and the creation of a interactive installation combining the old interlocking machine with 21st Century technology to recreate the working environment of one of the PRR's busiest towers. For more information about the Harrisburg Chapter of the NRHS, their activities or to plan a trip to the Harris Tower museum visit their website.

The lecture, on March 10th, 2015, is part of the Harrisburg Chapter’s meeting is free and open to the public and will begin at 7PM at the Hoss’s Steak and Seahouse, 743 Wertzville Road, Enola, Pennsylvania

For more information please contact me directly at michael@michaelfroio.com

Happy Holidays from Michael Froio Photography

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Friends, As 2014 winds down and we are amidst the holiday season I’d like to take a moment to thank everyone for all the wonderful words and support. Between formally becoming a small business owner, commercial commissions, lectures, curating an exhibition, writing, research and making photographs for the Main Line Project it has been a truly amazing year. I look forward to taking the final days of 2014 to reflect on the year and spend some much-needed time with the family. Looking forward to 2015 there is a number of events on the horizon,more information will follow after the start of the New Year. I have taken a moment to assemble here some of my favorite holiday posts from years past, enjoy and happy holidays from my family to yours!

Sincerely,

Michael Froio

Holiday Traditions: Story of the Night before Christmas Paintings by PRR employee William W. Seigford Jr.

This time of year, family and friends come together to celebrate the holidays with traditions developed over generations. As a part of our family tradition I have the pleasure to read to my children on Christmas Eve as my father did before, the fabled poem, The Night Before Christmas by Clement Clark Moore. First published anonymously in December of 1823, it is now the tradition in many American families to read the poem on Christmas Eve.

The story and illustrations presented here were made in 1953 by Pennsylvania Railroad employee, William W. Seigford Jr. who maintained an office at the Harrisburg Passenger Station. They were displayed in the station during the Christmas season alternating with other decorations for several years until Seigford was transferred to Cincinnati in 1956. The paintings were never displayed in Cincinnati but remained in Seigford’s possession until he retired from Penn Central as General Foreman of Passenger Locomotives and Cars in July of 1974. After retirement he returned to the Lancaster area and subsequently donated the paintings to Amtrak’s Lancaster Passenger Station for display during the Christmas season. Surviving the Pennsylvania Railroad and Penn Central, all 12 original paintings hang proudly in the beautiful 1929 waiting room under the watchful eye of Amtrak employees Richard Peiffer and Donna Whitney, who facilitated the making of these reproductions for future preservation.

I would like to acknowledge Mr. William (Bill) L. Seigford for his help on this post as well as his continued support on the Main Line Project, his knowledge and generosity have been a invaluable resource.

The Lionel Corporation: Model Railroad Icon of the Holiday Season

Page 12-13 of Lionel's 1947 product catalog illustrating the deluxe train sets # 1447WS and 1459WS featuring accessories including the log dump car and working cattle pen. Note the locomotive which is modeled after the PRR's failed S2 steam turbine locomotive, which ironically Lionel produced more of than the Juniata Shops!  Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

Page 12-13 of Lionel's 1947 product catalog illustrating the deluxe train sets # 1447WS and 1459WS featuring accessories including the log dump car and working cattle pen. Note the locomotive which is modeled after the PRR's failed S2 steam turbine locomotive, which ironically Lionel produced more of than the Juniata Shops!  Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

With modest beginnings Joshua Lionel Cowen and Harry C. Grant founded the Lionel Corporation in 1900, building model trains for retail window displays to help draw consumers to their stores. In 1906 the company responded to the increasing demand for the electric trains in the consumer market and developed its trademark three-rail “standard gage” track to simplify wiring and use of accessories.  By 1915 Lionel would supplement the large standard gage with the budget minded O scale which would later become the standard size of their product lines. Lionel’s use of sharp advertising was ultimately responsible for tying model trains to Christmas, making them popular presents during the holidays, establishing traditions that survive today.  By WWI Lionel was one of three major US manufactures of toy trains, surpassing competitor Ives as the market leader by the 1920’s. Lionel’s growth and aggressive ad campaigns further led to Ives' bankruptcy in 1928.

Lionel 027 gage locomotives and tenders! No Lionel layout was complete with extra motive power, this includes many Pennsy inspired locomotives lettered in both the classic Lionel Lines and PRR. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author. 

Lionel 027 gage locomotives and tenders! No Lionel layout was complete with extra motive power, this includes many Pennsy inspired locomotives lettered in both the classic Lionel Lines and PRR. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author. 

Like many other companies, the Great Depression would be a severe detriment to Lionel’s business, as a result their 1927 operating profit of over $500,000 plummeted to $82,000 in 1930, and ultimately a loss in 1931 of over $200,000 putting Lionel into receivership by May of 1934. A product credited with saving Lionel during the Depression era was a wind up hand car featuring Mickey and Minnie Mouse which Lionel sold well over 250,00 units providing the cash flow to keep the company from closing.

"From the Ranch Lands and Dairy Country!" Lionel was well known for there operating accessories including the Cattle Car and Milk cars both which were accompanied by track side platforms for loading and unloading. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

"From the Ranch Lands and Dairy Country!" Lionel was well known for there operating accessories including the Cattle Car and Milk cars both which were accompanied by track side platforms for loading and unloading. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

In 1942 Lionel ceased toy production to produce items for the United States Navy during World War II. Regardless of the lack of toy train production, the advertising department pushed heavily to urge American teenagers to start planning their post-war layouts. By late 1945 Lionel resumed production, replacing their original product lines with more realistic trains and accessories exclusively in O Scale. Considered by many aficionados as the golden years, 1946-1956 saw sales soaring with new items including the famous Santa Fe Warbonnet EMD F3 locomotives as well as the Pennsylvania Railroad GGI and experimental S2 steam turbine locomotive. During the 1950s Lionel would tout its short-lived title of largest toy manufacturer, out selling American Flyer almost 2:1. After 1955 sales declined steadily with the rising popularity of the smaller but more realistic HO Scale and to many the end of the true “Lionel era” was in 1959. Over the years Lionel was diversified unsuccessfully and the name survived in different ways including retail toy outlet Lionel Kiddy City. Today the Lionel name remains the most famous name in model trains, though not associated with the original corporation, Lionel LLC owns most of the product rights and trademarks continuing the legacy started by American businessmen Joshua Lionel and Harry Grant well over 100 years ago.

Holiday Travel: A vintage add from the Pennsylvania Railroad

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Upcoming Lecture | PRRT&HS National Convention

View of the former Pennsylvania Railroad Main Line and East Franklin from Conemaugh, Pennsylvania.

View of the former Pennsylvania Railroad Main Line and East Franklin from Conemaugh, Pennsylvania.

I am happy to announce that I’ll be presenting  a lecture on the ongoing photographic project, From the Main Line: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad during this year's annualPennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society national convention. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890′s to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR Main Line from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. Using large format film based images this project combines historical research and imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most celebrated railroads in American history for both exhibition and web format.

The Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society (PRRT&HS) is a national organization including 12 Chapters around the country whose mission is to further scholarly learning and interest in the Pennsylvania Railroad through a number of activities. For more information about the PRRT&HS, their activities and archives please visit their website. The lecture, part of the annual national meeting which runs from May 1st to May 4th is one of many diverse presentations covering a range of topics on the late great Pennsylvania Railroad. For registration information and schedules please visit the convention page or contact me directly at michael@michaelfroio.com

Thank you for your support!

Michael Froio

A Ride on the Pennsylvania

Though I have spent some seven years documenting the former Pennsylvania Railroad I can count on one hand how many times I have actually rode the original Main Line between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. This past weekend I graduated to three fingers making the round trip to Pittsburgh from Philadelphia. This one however was no ordinary trip; in fact it was quite special, for it was made on two privately owned historic rail cars; Bennett and Eric Levin’s lovingly restored Warrior Ridge and the Pennsylvania 120 a former PRR business car. As an invited guest myself and several others were lucky enough to see the landscape that that PRR has traveled since its completion in 1852, traveling through places I was all to familiar with but not always from the perspective of the passenger.

"Storm lifting in the Packsaddle", William H. Rau photograph. The Packsaddle is one of several locations that were used during various illustration and photographic campaigns on the Pennsylvania Railroad in the 19th Century. Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

"Storm lifting in the Packsaddle", William H. Rau photograph. The Packsaddle is one of several locations that were used during various illustration and photographic campaigns on the Pennsylvania Railroad in the 19th Century. Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

It got me thinking as several of us discussed various facets of the PRR including illustrative and photographic campaigns undertaken over the years by the company. These campaigns were geared around flaunting the scenic vistas along this prolific engineered corridor; some are revisited several times, in particular during the second half of the 19th Century. Riding in a car that served PRR President Walter Franklin among other officials, I could imagine the conversations and acknowledgment of these beautiful locations that seemed to captivate railroad men whether it was because they conquered a particularly difficult pass there or because the beauty was just that breathtaking.

For over 160 years the PRR has traversed this natural landscape following the majestic Susquehanna, Juniata, Conemaugh and Allegheny Rivers among others. Throughout that time countless passengers gazed out the window at areas commanding names like Warrior Ridge, The Packsaddle, Mineral Point and Jacks Narrows. Let us not forget how many experience the westbound ascent of Horseshoe curve out of Altoona, entering the famous engineering landmark high above Burgoon Run one quickly gets a sense of the curve's purpose, watching an eastbound descend the mountain across the valley at a noticeably higher elevation. Places like this were engineered by brilliant and driven men on the backs of cheap labor wielding pick axes and shovels, they are a testament of what was possible in the by gone era of industrialization. But yet they still survive, moving countless trains on a given day, a refined version of J. Edgar Thomson’s engineering genius. Besides the trains themselves little has changed from when Frederick Gutekunst or William Rau left footprints in the cinders making the large format images that preserved this rugged beauty. I have always been fascinated by the undefined spaces the railroad travels, the areas in-between the towns, cities and villages that create a sort of rhythm that illustrates the growth and progress the railroads fostered along the line, watching the ever changing landscape from the window of train who’s predecessors we owe our Nation’s existence to.

"The Horse Shoe Curve, Pennsylvania Railroad" Illustration of the engineering landmark envisioned by  J. Edgar Thomson from an 1895 travel book which illustrates the scenic highlights of the Pennsylvania Railroad Main Line. Collection of the author. 

"The Horse Shoe Curve, Pennsylvania Railroad" Illustration of the engineering landmark envisioned by  J. Edgar Thomson from an 1895 travel book which illustrates the scenic highlights of the Pennsylvania Railroad Main Line. Collection of the author. 

Yes this weekend was a welcome distraction, a reminder of why I embarked on this project, to document and share a railroad so historic and massive that its reputation and design lasted longer the company itself. To spend time on the railroad with like minded folks on a pair of beautifully restored private cars was exactly what I needed to put into perspective the past, present and future of railroading on the Pennsylvania Railroad and the landscape it travels. In regard to preservation, I take off my hat to people like the Levin’s who share the legacy of railroad travel in style and take every opportunity to see to it their guests are comfortable and having a good time. And to my fellow travel mates, I made some new friends and shared some great stories about the very railroad that bought us all together. Though the Pennsylvania Railroad has been gone for quite some time it is experiences like this that reinforce that the spirit and pride of the former Standard Railroad of the World is still very much alive through so many people and their work to preserve our railroad heritage. This is a trip that will stick with me for quite a long time!

Upcoming Lecture | Northern Central Chapter PRRT&HS

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I am happy to announce that I’ll be presenting  a slide show and discussion on the ongoing photographic project, From the Main Line: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad for the Northern Central Chapter of the Pennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890′s to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR Main Line from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. Using large format film based images this project combines historical research and imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most celebrated railroads in American history for both exhibition and web format.

The Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society (PRRT&HS) is a national organization including 12 Chapters around the country whose mission is to further scholarly learning and interest in the Pennsylvania Railroad through a number of activities. For more information about the PRRT&HS, their activities and archives please visit their website. The lecture, part of the Northern Central quarterly chapter meeting is free and open to the public and will begin at approximately 1:30PM at the Otterbein United Methodist Church, 301 W. Philadelphia Street, York, Pa. For more information please contact me directly at michael@michaelfroio.com

Thank you for your support!

Michael Froio

PRR Main Line: Salunga-Landisville

1909 view of NV tower, Landisville station and hotel located at the crossing of the PRR Main Line and Reading & Columbia Branch of the Reading Railroad. Today the tower, R&C and hotel are long gone but the small station behind the tower survives along with the Main Line. Collection of the Lancaster Historical Society

1909 view of NV tower, Landisville station and hotel located at the crossing of the PRR Main Line and Reading & Columbia Branch of the Reading Railroad. Today the tower, R&C and hotel are long gone but the small station behind the tower survives along with the Main Line. Collection of the Lancaster Historical Society

Continuing east on the Main Line we come to Salunga-Landisville in East Hempfield Twp, Lancaster County. The small community’s unique name derives from two sources: Salunga derives from the nearby Chiquesalunga (now Chickies or Chiques) Creek and Landisville coming from the town’s first postmaster John Landis.  The small town was host to the main line of the PRR, which was the former Harrisburg & Lancaster route, as well as the Reading & Columbia a railroad chartered in 1857 to connect the city of Reading with the Chesapeake Bay region by way of the Susquehanna Tidewater Canal in Columbia, PA. Later leased by the Philadelphia & Reading Railway the line was extended into Lancaster City and Marietta, PA providing competition for the PRR in the local iron producing and agricultural regions while offering up to 10 passenger trains a day at its peak.

Interlocking plate drawing for Landis Interlocking circa 1963, note the use of Reading style color light signals protecting the R&C branch. Collection of    The Broad Way    web archive.

Interlocking plate drawing for Landis Interlocking circa 1963, note the use of Reading style color light signals protecting the R&C branch. Collection of The Broad Way web archive.

Landisville was a unique place on the Pennsy because the R&C and PRR routes intersected at grade, something that didn’t exist for much of the modern PRR Main Line east of Pittsburgh. Right in the heart of town the R&C, running perpendicular to the PRR and Old Harrisburg Pike (Main St.) crossed the two-track PRR main line with connecting tracks in the northeast and southwest quadrants of the intersection. The junction was protected by the PRR using an early standard design wood frame  tower similar to Shore and Lemoyne, which was located in the southwest quadrant of the intersection accompanied by a small frame station on the southeast side of the crossing. Located just across the tracks in the northeast quadrant was a railroad hotel providing convenient accommodations for passengers. NV tower named such for  its telegraph call letters eventually gave way as traffic on the R&C diminished and the operator was moved to the station building next door. Landis as it was later known, as was a part time facility, occupied by a freight agent that handled the Reading – PRR interchange traffic and local customers including John Bergner & Sons Company, Keystone Boiler & Foundry and Chiques Milling among others, most of which in support of the local agricultural industry.

(L) The surviving station building later housed the agent/ operator for Landis Interlocking. Immediately in front of the building was the R&C and the tower was situated roughly in the area of the brush in the foreground. (R) One of several warehouses on the PRR just east of the R&C crossing, this one was once used for shipping Lancaster County Broad Leaf Tobacco.

(L) The surviving station building later housed the agent/ operator for Landis Interlocking. Immediately in front of the building was the R&C and the tower was situated roughly in the area of the brush in the foreground. (R) One of several warehouses on the PRR just east of the R&C crossing, this one was once used for shipping Lancaster County Broad Leaf Tobacco.

The agent here was qualified as an operator and was able to control the interlocking, which was usually set to automatic for PRR traffic, to allow a Reading train to cross the main by using a small table top Union Switch & Signal machine that consisted of five levers and three timer run-downs for signals. In a brief conversation with veteran tower operator Don Rittler, he recalls a time working the tower during track maintenance, utilizing the single crossover to divert traffic around work crews. Don lamented about the difficulty understanding the Reading Railroad dispatchers who would call to report an approaching “Buck” the nickname for the R&C local, most of the dispatchers were of German-Dutch descent and often had very thick accents. By 1985 various segments of the R&C were abandoned eliminating the need for the crossing of the PRR and thus Landis was closed. Parts of the R&C route survive including a short segment from the junction at Landisville to the southern border of East Hempfield Township to serve an industrial complex and is operated as the Landisville Railroad.

This surviving segment of the Reading and Columbia branch crosses Main Street in Salunga-Landisville south of the connection with the PRR continuing to the East Hempfield Township line to serve several industries. Today this industrial track is served by Norfolk Southern crews and includes several consignees like the lumber yard immediately behind the photographer. 

This surviving segment of the Reading and Columbia branch crosses Main Street in Salunga-Landisville south of the connection with the PRR continuing to the East Hempfield Township line to serve several industries. Today this industrial track is served by Norfolk Southern crews and includes several consignees like the lumber yard immediately behind the photographer. 

PRR Main Line: Little Chiques Creek

Plate #68. Bridge Across Little Chiques Creek, Near Mount Joy. Circa 1891-1893 by William H Rau Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc 

Plate #68. Bridge Across Little Chiques Creek, Near Mount Joy. Circa 1891-1893 by William H Rau Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc 

Moving east from Mount Joy the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad spans Little Chiques Creek. Originally known as Little Chiquesalunga Creek  which derives its name from the Native American word Chiquesalunga, or crayfish, the creek runs some 20 miles in a southerly direction to join Chiques Creek a mile before it empties out into the Susquehanna River in Marietta.  The two track bridge was constructed in 1885 measuring 450' in length and 40' high, replacing an iron truss span during upgrades to the right of way under William H. Brown. The masonry bridge was unique in construction from Brown's later bridges utilizing brick lined arches and an intergrated countering pier that ran perpendicular to the span. With the special photographic train posed on the bridge, William H. Rau has set his 18x22" view camera up on the bank of the creek looking south (judging by the movement of the water) to capture a bridge that was less than ten years old. This same span continues to serve its intended purpose carrying Amtrak Keystone trains between Lancaster and Harrisburg.

Mount Joy on the Philadelphia Division

Turn of the century view of the third and final Mount Joy station after the PRR relocated the main line during the system improvements program of the 1890's. Inset image of the 1876 station constructed by the PRR  on the original Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy & Lancaster Railroad alignment at Market Street. Inset image collection of the Lancaster Historical Society.

Turn of the century view of the third and final Mount Joy station after the PRR relocated the main line during the system improvements program of the 1890's. Inset image of the 1876 station constructed by the PRR  on the original Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy & Lancaster Railroad alignment at Market Street. Inset image collection of the Lancaster Historical Society.

The borough of Mount Joy was established in 1812, its name deriving not from a local geographic feature but the English surname Mountjoy, which was bought to the colonies by settlers from Ireland. Situated in the rich agricultural landscape of western Lancaster County, Mount Joy is flanked by the village of Florin to the west and Little Chiques Creek to the east.

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In 1836 the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy & Lancaster Railroad began service between Mount Joy and Lancaster with subsequent through service to Harrisburg beginning in 1838 due to delays excavating a tunnel to the west in Elizabethtown. The H&L was a private enterprise founded by James Buchanan and Simon Cameron, both would later rise to important posts in government – Buchanan our 15th President and Cameron the Secretary of War during the Lincoln Administration. The line was initially constructed as a means to connect the Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad with the Cumberland Valley in Harrisburg. The H&L was one of the first private railroads purchased by the PRR, who contracted operation of the company in 1848 establishing a direct route between Harrisburg and Philadelphia (via the P&C at Lancaster) and later purchased the operation outright in 1917.

Surveyors plotted the original route through the heart of Mount Joy approaching from the west, north and parallel to Main Street. Shortly after the arrival of the railroad, agricultural related industry as well as furnaces and manufacturing quickly developed with the promise of connections to distant markets. Initially the H&L operated a passenger station at the corner Main and Barbara streets, part of railroad-operated hotel. It was in this vicinity that the original right of way made a dramatic turn south through the center of town in a congested two block area, crossing almost all east west streets at grade between Barbara and Jacobs Streets, straightening again between Sassafras Alley and East Donegal St and finally crossing Little Chiques Creek on the east end of town.

In 1876 a new wood frame station was constructed at the crossing of Market Street replacing the original H&L arrangement and included enlarged facilities for both freight and passengers and an agent’s quarters. The new station was surrounded by industry like the Philip Frank malting facility and the Brandt & Manning mill, which likely provided materials to the A. Bube Brewery on Market St which survives today as microbrewery and restaurant.

Main Line Improvements of the 1890's

1891 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Mount Joy showing the original alignment surveyed by the Harrisburg & Lancaster in the 1830's. In just a few years this route would be relocated to better suit the needs of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Map collection of the Penn State University Library. 

1891 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map of Mount Joy showing the original alignment surveyed by the Harrisburg & Lancaster in the 1830's. In just a few years this route would be relocated to better suit the needs of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Map collection of the Penn State University Library. 

Like many early railroad grades the existing alignment laid out in the 1830’s was less than ideal for the aspirations of the PRR approaching the end of the 19th Century. Part of the greater system improvements program under Chief Engineer William H. Brown, Mount Joy underwent changes between 1892 and 1896 that would improve rail service and the quality of life for many residents by eliminating grade crossings and the reverse curve through town. The PRR purchased land between Jacob (now W. Henry St.) and West Donegal Streets from Marietta Ave west to the town limits for construction of the new alignment.

1896 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map shows completion of the new line with the old alignment yet to be abandoned.  Map collection of the Penn State University Library. 

1896 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map shows completion of the new line with the old alignment yet to be abandoned.  Map collection of the Penn State University Library. 

The railroad was built below grade eliminating any road crossings and straightened the line a great deal, a great benefit to the railroad who would eventually use this line primarily for fast moving passenger trains. Though the PRR was known for its four-track system, this line between Royalton and Dillerville always remained two tracks due to most freight being diverted over the Columbia Branch and A&S at Parkesburg.

1902 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map showing the final arrangement including the removal of the H&L alignment east of Barbara Street, the same basic trackage arrangement that survives today. Map collection of the Penn State University Library. 

1902 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map showing the final arrangement including the removal of the H&L alignment east of Barbara Street, the same basic trackage arrangement that survives today. Map collection of the Penn State University Library. 

With the opening of the new line, the old H&L alignment was abandoned east of Barbara Street with the western half retained to access the numerous industries located on the now stub end spur. The 1876 passenger station remained for many years as an agent office while a replacement station was built on the new main line in 1896. Featuring a design similar to some suburban stations on the Philadelphia Terminal Division’s Chestnut Hill line the new facility had a street level station house with agent quarters and passenger shelters in the narrow cut below at track level.

Remains of the 1830's H&L alignment connects the Spangler's Mill complex to the main line from the west end of town. This mill is served by Norfolk Southern crews based out of Dillerville Yard in Lancaster, PA. 

Remains of the 1830's H&L alignment connects the Spangler's Mill complex to the main line from the west end of town. This mill is served by Norfolk Southern crews based out of Dillerville Yard in Lancaster, PA. 

In 1938 more change came to Mount Joy when the PRR initiated the final phase of electrification between Paoli and Harrisburg on both the main line and freight routes. Today Amtrak operates the line as part of the New York City- Harrisburg Keystone Service providing limited service at Mount Joy. Both the 1876 and 1896 stations have been lost and at the present time an Amshack bus shelter provides limited facilities for passengers. The county, borough and Amtrak aim to build an improved transportation center in the vicinity of the existing station, part of a plan to redevelop downtown Mount Joy and improve transportation access.  The surviving H&L alignment is now owned by Spangler’s Flour Mill and is serviced by Norfolk Southern Corporation crews based out of Dillerville Yard in Lancaster.

Lecture: Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society | Philadelphia Chapter

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I am happy to announce that I'll be presenting  a slide show and discussion on my ongoing photographic project, From the Main Line: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad for the Philadelphia Chapter of the Pennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890's to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR Main Line from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. Using large format film based images this project combines historical research and imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most celebrated railroads in American history for both exhibition and web format.

The Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society (PRRT&HS) is a national organization whose mission is to further scholarly learning and interest in the Pennsylvania Railroad through a number of activities. The Philadelphia Chapter is one of 12 around the country, both the National and Regional Chapters dedicate a great amount of energy producing some wonderful publications including The Keystone and Philadelphia Chapter's Highline and Keystone Chronicles among others. For more information about the PRRT&HS, their activities and archives please visit their website. The lecture, part of the Philadelphia Chapter's meeting is free and open to the public and will begin at approximately 2PM at the Drexel Hill Methodist Church, 600 Burmont Road, Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania. For more information please contact me directly at michael@michaelfroio.com

Thank you for your support!

Michael Froio

Celebrating Labor Day on the Pennsylvania Railroad

A remarkable PRR system map from 1855 showing the original main line from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh including eastern connections to the Philadelphia & Columbia and Harrisburg & Lancaster Railroad. Note the inscription of Chief Engineer Herman Haupt, who succeeded J. Edgar Thompson when he became the third president of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1847 where he would remain until his death in 1874. For 27 years as president, Thompson still played a very active role in engineering the PRR from a single track intrastate carrier to one of the most influential and wealthiest railroads in the land. Map created by J.P. & J. Lesley Jr. Topographers, the collection of the Library of Congress.  

A remarkable PRR system map from 1855 showing the original main line from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh including eastern connections to the Philadelphia & Columbia and Harrisburg & Lancaster Railroad. Note the inscription of Chief Engineer Herman Haupt, who succeeded J. Edgar Thompson when he became the third president of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1847 where he would remain until his death in 1874. For 27 years as president, Thompson still played a very active role in engineering the PRR from a single track intrastate carrier to one of the most influential and wealthiest railroads in the land. Map created by J.P. & J. Lesley Jr. Topographers, the collection of the Library of Congress.  

September 1st, 1849 marks a day of significant history in the early years of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1838 State and Philadelphia officials acknowledged the failure of the Main Line of Public Works and the need for a privately owned all rail route to preserve Philadelphia’s western trade. As a result surveyor, Charles L. Schlatter was sent to the wilds of western Pennsylvania to survey various routes for such a potential venture. Schlatter returned with three options; the one selected would follow the Juniata and Conemaugh Rivers, and by 1845 the legislature was asked to charter such a railroad.

Trimmers Rock, a location along the Juniata Division of the Main Line of Public Works canal system represents the typical landscape of the original PRR main line to Lewistown, loosely following the canal network the railroad later used to improve and relocate its main line alignment. Photograph by William H. Rau, collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc

Trimmers Rock, a location along the Juniata Division of the Main Line of Public Works canal system represents the typical landscape of the original PRR main line to Lewistown, loosely following the canal network the railroad later used to improve and relocate its main line alignment. Photograph by William H. Rau, collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc

Much to the dislike of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad who was attempting to build a line into Pittsburgh, the State Legislature passed an act on April 13th, 1846 incorporating the Pennsylvania Railroad.  The new company recruited J. Edgar Thomson as Cheif Engineer, and by early in 1847, the railroad let contracts to begin construction of the first 20 miles west of Harrisburg and 15 miles east of Pittsburgh, to meet requirements to make the B&O’s Pennsylvania charter null and void. By the end of 1848 more contracts for the grading of roadbed would total 117 miles of right of way west of Harrisburg to Logans Narrows. The anticipated operations to commence between Harrisburg and Lewistown by 1848, however, due to problems constructing the Susquehanna River bridge, the difficulty of obtaining rails fast enough and the overall lack of labor the opening would be delayed for some time.

The surviving main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad owes its success to the years of tireless improvements that all began with the charter to build a privately operated railroad connecting Philadelphia to the west in 1846 opening the route between Harrisburg and Lewistown on September 1st, 1849. The Main Line, looking west, Mifflin, Pennsylvania. 

The surviving main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad owes its success to the years of tireless improvements that all began with the charter to build a privately operated railroad connecting Philadelphia to the west in 1846 opening the route between Harrisburg and Lewistown on September 1st, 1849. The Main Line, looking west, Mifflin, Pennsylvania. 

The first segment of the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed and open for service providing a connection with the Canal and Turnpike system on September 1st, 1849. Though one of the easier segments of the original PRR construction this important date begins a chapter in rail transportation history that would forever change the landscape of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. With much fan fare, the first through train from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh departed On December 10th, 1852 commencing operation on the PRR which has been in continual service since. With the evolution of the PRR’s route in the 19th Century, advancements in technology and engineering the State’s first east west rail line would develop into a conduit of industry and commerce. The very same route that visionaries like C.L. Schlatter and J. Edgar Thomson laid out and successor William H. Brown improved upon survives today as a vital transportation link in the Norfolk Southern rail network, remaining in regular service for over 165 years.

Though for many of Labor Day marks the end of summer, we should all take a moment to acknowledge the countless men and woman that work to keep our rail networks viable, maintaining a transportation system that has been vital to American life for generations. Have a safe and happy Labor Day Weekend!

Elizabethtown on the Philadelphia Division

Trackside view of the main station building and former baggage elevator tower. This station underwent a renovation beging in 2008 utilizing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds. Today the station is occupied by the Chamber of Commerce but served by Amtrak's Keystone and Pennsylvanian Service. 

Trackside view of the main station building and former baggage elevator tower. This station underwent a renovation beging in 2008 utilizing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds. Today the station is occupied by the Chamber of Commerce but served by Amtrak's Keystone and Pennsylvanian Service. 

The borough of Elizabethtown found its origins in the 1730’s when Thomas Harris purchased a large piece of land and established a trading post along Conoy Creek in what would become western Lancaster County. Known as the Bear Tavern the buisness and land was later purchased by Barnabas Hughes who came from County Donegal, Ireland to establish a town named in his wife’s honor. Elizabethtown was one of the earliest communities settled in the County and owed its early existence to its proximity of a wagon trail that later became the Lancaster – Harrisburg Turnpike.  Elizabethtown was incorporated in 1827 and grew steadily over the years with the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mt. Joy and Lancaster Railroad arriving in the 1830’s. By 1848 the PRR contracted a lease with the HPMtJ&L and later purchasing the line to become part of the railroad’s main line between Philadelphia and Harrisburg. In the 1880’s under the leadership of Pennsylvania Railroad President George Brooke Roberts, Chief Engineer William H. Brown would begin a series of improvements to the alignment between Conewago and Elizabethtown. Utilizing several cuts to maintain a .75% grade on the eastbound ascent out of the Swatara Creek Valley and eliminating the troublesome Elizabethtown Tunnel which marked the summit of the eastward grade. Part of the old main was retained to service industrial consignees and a freight house that was located to the north of the new alignment.

Interior detail of the 1915 Passenger Station built by architects Zantzinger, Borie & Medary to match their Masonic Homes Campus on the south side of the Main Line. 

Interior detail of the 1915 Passenger Station built by architects Zantzinger, Borie & Medary to match their Masonic Homes Campus on the south side of the Main Line. 

Elizabethtown was surrounded by rich farmland and for many years thrived on agriculturally related business until the early 1900’s when the Klein Chocolate Company and several shoe factories opened. Around the same time Elizabethtown College was established and later construction of the sprawling Masonic Homes campus broke ground in 1910. Designed by Philadelphia architectural firm Zantzinger, Borie & Medary the Masonic Homes were built in the Collegiate Gothic Style utilizing granite and limestone. The cornerstone of the Grand Lodge Hall was laid in 1911, and as progress continued, the PRR commissioned the same firm to build a new passenger station in a complimentary style. Featuring the same granite walls and limestone trim, the station waiting room was church like with its wood buttresses and large multi-pane windows. The station connected aesthetically with the Masonic Homes and provided direct access from station via a pedestrian underpass right to the campus grounds. With further modifications to the railroad through the area the project included grade separation, elevating the main line to its current height and was completed in 1915.

Former PRR Freight Station located along the original main line alignment prior to the 1915 grade separation through the area. From the left to right the tracks are as follows: Former Klein Chocolate Plant siding, the main industrial lead, and public delivery track/ freight house lead. Note the Main Line on the embankment with switchback siding dropping down onto the old main. The freight house was demolished early this year to make way for much needed parking at the rehabilitated Elizabethtown Amtrak Station. (Inset) 1945 Segment of a PRR CT1000 which lists all line side industries on the PRR. 

Former PRR Freight Station located along the original main line alignment prior to the 1915 grade separation through the area. From the left to right the tracks are as follows: Former Klein Chocolate Plant siding, the main industrial lead, and public delivery track/ freight house lead. Note the Main Line on the embankment with switchback siding dropping down onto the old main. The freight house was demolished early this year to make way for much needed parking at the rehabilitated Elizabethtown Amtrak Station. (Inset) 1945 Segment of a PRR CT1000 which lists all line side industries on the PRR. 

Etown_CT100_45

The station served the PRR, Penn Central and Amtrak when it was shuttered in 1977 due to its deteriorating condition. In 1998 the Borough of Elizabethtown purchased the station from Amtrak and a long and costly renovation began in 2008 utilizing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds. Today the beautifully restored station is occupied by the Chamber of Commerce and serves Amtrak’s revamped Keystone Service Line and the daily Pennsylvanian. Unfortunately as result of the station and Keystone line rehab the need for expanded parking capacity recently necessitated the demolition of the original freight house, which was in disrepair having been vacant for some time. The old main line alignment continues to be serviced by Norfolk Southern Local H22 based out of Dillerville Yard in Lancaster servicing the former Klein Chocolate plant (now a division of Mars), White Oak Mills an elevator and feed facility located on High Street and the occasional car load for off site industries on the remaining public delivery track.

Conewago and the Lebanon Valley Gateway

Plate#91: View of the Conewago Gorge by photographer William H. Rau, during his first photographic commission with the Pennsylvania Railroad to illustrate the destinations and scenery along the system. Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

Plate#91: View of the Conewago Gorge by photographer William H. Rau, during his first photographic commission with the Pennsylvania Railroad to illustrate the destinations and scenery along the system. Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

Leaving Royalton behind the main line begins a sustained climb to Elizabethtown with a ruling grade of .84%. Four miles east from the junction of the Royalton Branch the main line, running on the alignment of the former Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mt Joy and Lancaster Railroad crosses the Conewago Creek valley. Lenape for “At the Rapids”, the Conewago is actually two creeks of the same name: One running from the west to the Susquehanna River in York County the other coming from the east from the headwaters of Lake Conewago in Mt Gretna, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania to the Susquehanna near the village of Falmouth.

Pennsylvania Railroad Track Chart showing the grade and track profile between Highspire and Rheems. Note the junction with the Lebanon Branch at approximately Milepost 90 in Conewago, this branch had an interesting history connected with the Coleman Family iron dynasty of the late 1800's. Excerpts of track charts collection   Keystone Crossings  .

Pennsylvania Railroad Track Chart showing the grade and track profile between Highspire and Rheems. Note the junction with the Lebanon Branch at approximately Milepost 90 in Conewago, this branch had an interesting history connected with the Coleman Family iron dynasty of the late 1800's. Excerpts of track charts collection Keystone Crossings.

(Inset) Post card view of the 1885 Cornwall and Lebanon Railroad station in Lebanon, Pennsylvania designed by noted architect George Watson Hewitt. This building survives today and is on the National Register of Historic Places. 

(Inset) Post card view of the 1885 Cornwall and Lebanon Railroad station in Lebanon, Pennsylvania designed by noted architect George Watson Hewitt. This building survives today and is on the National Register of Historic Places. 

By the 1840’s iron forges to the north of Mt. Gretna owned by various descendants of Robert Coleman flourished in Lebanon with transportation access provided primarily by way of the Union Canal. The area’s close proximity to the Anthracite Regions, the Cornwall iron ore hills, an abundance of timber for charcoal/ coke production and local limestone quarries provided the catalyst for growth and development of an industry, which would become the backbone of Lebanon County and the Commonwealth of PA. To feed the forges William Coleman and cousin George Dawson Coleman constructed the North Lebanon Railroad In 1853 connecting the ore hills and forges near Cornwall to the Union Canal landings in Lebanon. By 1870 the railroad was renamed the Cornwall Railroad, interchanging with the Lebanon Valley Railroad, a line that was absorbed by the Philadelphia and Reading. As mining progressed at the Cornwall Ore Hills Company another line, The Spiral Railroad was constructed in Cornwall to facilitate moving material from the pit mines, loading the raw ore into Cornwall RR rail cars. The material would then head out to Lebanon for processing and concentration to be used in local iron production. By 1884 the Cornwall RR would also construct another route the Cornwall and Mount Hope Railroad, providing access to the P&R’s Reading and Columbia Branch allowing interchange freight and connecting passenger services via Manheim. 

For a long time the Cornwall Railroad ran with no competition until 1883 when Robert H Coleman, a cousin to William Freeman the president of the Cornwall Railroad and son to the founder to the North Lebanon Railroad, would open a competing railroad, the Cornwall and Lebanon, creating considerable angst between the two operations. Running southwest from Lebanon to Cornwall then onto the resort town of Mt. Gretna following the Conewago Creek Valley, the new line provided a direct connection to the Pennsylvania Railroad in Conewago, opening markets in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and points west. Consequently in the following year, the aging Cornwall Furnaces ceased production, unable to compete with larger mills like Johnstown, Bethlehem and Steelton. Lackawanna Iron and Steel purchased the facilities and iron mines in 1894, later becoming a subsidiary of Bethlehem Steel whom operated the mines into the 1970’s.

Postcard view of the Cornwall iron ore mines circa 1922. The railroad in the image likely to be the Spiral Railroad, providing access to the three ore bearing hills at the mine site which then fed the material to both the Cornwall Railroad and Cornwall & Lebanon Railroads. 

Postcard view of the Cornwall iron ore mines circa 1922. The railroad in the image likely to be the Spiral Railroad, providing access to the three ore bearing hills at the mine site which then fed the material to both the Cornwall Railroad and Cornwall & Lebanon Railroads. 

Though the forges shut down Robert H. Coleman’s net worth in the 1880s was over 30 million dollars, owing other interests in the iron business. However his investment in the failed Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West Railroad Railway in Florida and the Financial Panic of 1893 Coleman would lose everything and his assets defaulted to debtors who took control of the Cornwall and Lebanon Railroad. Providing an ideal operation to tap the remaining ore deposits, Pennsylvania Railroad’s board of directors authorized purchase of railroad on Mar. 12, 1913 from Lackawanna Steel Company for $1.84 million; officially merging w the PRR April 15th 1918. The route continued to operate through the Penn Central until Hurricane Agnes wiped out considerable pieces of right of way and flooded the remaining pit mines operating in Cornwall.

Pennsylvania Railroad Electrification

Yesterday, February 10th marked the 78th anniversary of regularly scheduled electric powered passenger trains running between New York City and Wahshington DC, a result of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s effort to electrify the main line system throughout the congested Northeast region.

Formerly known as Germantown Junction, North Philadelphia marked where the 1918 electrification of the Chestnut Hill Branch diverged from the main line to head north into the suburbs. This junction today sees Septa trains diverging on the same route while handling the north - south traffic of the Northeast Corridor. Note the massive signal bridge which originally spanned up to 8 tracks, and the early lattice style catenary pole in the foreground.

Formerly known as Germantown Junction, North Philadelphia marked where the 1918 electrification of the Chestnut Hill Branch diverged from the main line to head north into the suburbs. This junction today sees Septa trains diverging on the same route while handling the north - south traffic of the Northeast Corridor. Note the massive signal bridge which originally spanned up to 8 tracks, and the early lattice style catenary pole in the foreground.

The Pennsylvania Railroad’s electrification projects date back as early as 1895 when the railroad used the Burlington and Mt. Holly Railroad as a test subject for a 7 mile 500 volt DC trolley system. The experiment lasted just six years when the Mt Holly powerhouse caught fire. In 1906 southern New Jersey subsidiary West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, built a third rail 600 volt DC system from Camden to Millville and Atlantic City via Newfield. Like an interurban or trolley system the line utilized overhead wire in congested areas like Camden but also had several installations in the countryside, as way to test the durability of trolley wire versus third rail at higher speeds. The same year the PRR installed yet another 600 volt DC system on a short Cumberland Valley Railroad branch running 7.7 miles from Mechanicsburg and Dillsburg all predecessors to the first large scale use of this technology on the railroad. In 1910, the PRR would construct a similar 650-volt DC system to operate the newly opened New York Terminal. Running from Manhattan Transfer near Harrison, New Jersey east to the beautiful Penn Station and ultimately to the sprawling Sunnyside Yard in Queens.

Map detailing the Pennsylvania Railroad's electrified territory circa 1947. Collection of    Rails and Trails .

Map detailing the Pennsylvania Railroad's electrified territory circa 1947. Collection of Rails and Trails.

Soon after the benefits of electric traction were realize in the New York Terminal, attention was focused on the Philadelphia area to relieve congestion, in particular operations radiating from the stub-end Broad Street Station complex. After considerable research the railroad adopted the use of high voltage alternating current for this and all future projects like that of its northern neighbor the New Haven who began use of this technology as early as 1907. Initial electrification included the district between Broad Street and Paoli on the Main Line, which was completed in 1915, followed by the Chestnut Hill Branch in 1918, and the White Marsh Branch in 1924.

PRR Document ET 1 Circa 1935. This document highlights a number of important specifications and layout of the newly completed electrified system, including catenary cable design, substation locations, insulator types and the completion dates of each segment among other items.  Collection of PRR.Railfan.net

PRR Document ET 1 Circa 1935. This document highlights a number of important specifications and layout of the newly completed electrified system, including catenary cable design, substation locations, insulator types and the completion dates of each segment among other items. Collection of PRR.Railfan.net

Expansion continued south to Wilmington on the main line including the branch to West Chester in 1928 and north on the main line to Trenton and the Schuylkill Valley Branch to Norristown in 1930 thus completing the electrification of Philadelphia region suburban lines. Subsequent studies indicated an economical advantage of electrification outside the commuter zones for regional and long distance trains between New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC and Harrisburg, prompting Pennsylvania Railroad President William Wallace Atterbury to close the gaps in electrification beginning late in 1928. Despite the Great Depression the electrification project continued through 1933, completing the retrofit of the New York Terminal for AC traction and finishing catenary work to complete the network to Wilmington and Paoli.

The PRR electrified network still serves the modern needs of Amtrak, providing propulsion for Acela, regional and local passenger rail service through out the Northeast. At Shore, on the Northeast Corridor a southbound passes as another northbound region approaches. Note the catenary above the void in front of the camera, this is where the line to Delair diverges and used to have multiple tracks, all electrified into Pavonia Yard in Camden.

The PRR electrified network still serves the modern needs of Amtrak, providing propulsion for Acela, regional and local passenger rail service through out the Northeast. At Shore, on the Northeast Corridor a southbound passes as another northbound region approaches. Note the catenary above the void in front of the camera, this is where the line to Delair diverges and used to have multiple tracks, all electrified into Pavonia Yard in Camden.

Understanding that Wilmington would not be a suitable southern terminal for electrification, catenary was extended to Washington DC including Potomac Yard, financed by a 70 million dollar loan secured from depression era federal recovery programs. Beginning in January of 1934, various reports say up to 20,000 men went to work, comprising of furloughed railroad employees and new hires in the electrical / construction trades to complete the electrification of the New York – Washington DC main line, which opened for business on February 10th 1935.

As a result of the success on the north south “corridor” the PRR sought to complete electrification from the eastern seaboard west to the Harrisburg terminal including all associated freight and passenger main lines. Work commenced on the Low Grade from Morrisville to Enola, the main line from Paoli to Harrisburg and the on the Columbia Branch and Columbia & Port Deposit. Completed in 1938 the entire electrification created a powerful conduit that put the railroad in an excellent position to handle the impending pressure of war time traffic demands.

The Harrisburg power Dispatchers office, which was slated to close the beginning of this month controlled the electrical supply network for both signal and catenary systems. This massive installation is an engineering marvel by itself, an impressive monitor and control system consisting of hundreds of push button breakers and miles of wiring. Though this facility remained in service, the actual console was taken off line and replaced by computers which were located out of view.

The Harrisburg power Dispatchers office, which was slated to close the beginning of this month controlled the electrical supply network for both signal and catenary systems. This massive installation is an engineering marvel by itself, an impressive monitor and control system consisting of hundreds of push button breakers and miles of wiring. Though this facility remained in service, the actual console was taken off line and replaced by computers which were located out of view.

The electrified infrastructure has remained visibly the same over the ensuing decades, surviving the Pennsylvania Railroad, Penn Central, Conrail and Amtrak. Though Conrail abandoned the electrified freight service in the 1980's Amtrak continues to maintain and modify where needed the original fixed tension catenary system. With the implementation of CTEC, its centralized traffic and electrical dispatching center, the company has slowly decommissioned all the former PRR power dispatching facilities in favor of new computerized systems. Today, when you ride the Northeast Corridor, look at the details amongst this great infrastructure, they reveal the various phases of construction and symbolize the ingenuity and engineering ability of the great Pennsylvania Railroad.

News and Updates for Winter 2013

Dear Friends, Happy New Year! I trust that you all had a wonderful and restful holiday and have settled into the New Year. Finishing out the last quarter of 2012 proved incredibly productive for the Main Line Project. While continuing work with many wonderful people at Amtrak for a second year I have begun building new relationships, with noted preservationist Bennett Levin and Eric Levin of Conrail Shared Assets opening many new opportunities. In addition, the release of the NRHS Bulletin article on the Main Line Project and the invitation to present lectures for several events ended 2012 with a promising start to the New Year.

Park. 001
Park. 001

In 2013 we will continue the tour of the Pennsylvania Railroad, focusing on the Philadelphia Division’s fabled Low Grade route east from Columbia, Pennsylvania as well as the main line from Royalton to Philadelphia. With new content and added historical imagery you can expect a more rounded look at the history and current operations of this important division of the PRR. I have already started making new images this year continuing documentation of the extensive infrastructure along the Main Line to finish out the Harrisburg – Philadelphia segment and expand upon my work in the Philadelphia Terminal and New York Divisions for future posts.

In addition to research, writing and photography, this year marks an exciting chapter for the project with the opportunity to present my imagery and research in three lectures scheduled for the winter and early spring. See below for details on these upcoming events!

From the Main Line: Exploring the former Pennsylvania Railroad today.

January 28th, 2013 7:30 PM

Though modern imagery inspired by railroad photographer William H Rau, the presentation will explore the unique landscape and vernacular associated with the Standard Railroad of the World.

West Jersey Chapter, National Railway Historical Society

625 Station Avenue, Haddon Heights NJ 08035

Understanding the Pennsylvania Railroad: Contemporary photographs in response to the historic works of William H Rau.

March 7th, 2013

This lecture will look directly at W.H. Rau’s photographs of the Pennsylvania Railroad made in the 1890's exploring their impact on the Main Line Project to understand the importance of dialog between the historic and contemporary photographer. Details to follow.

The Library Company of Philadelphia

1314 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107

Conversation on Photography Annual Conference

April 12th – 14th, 2013

The Center for Railroad Photography and Art hosts this annual conference. The Center has become America’s foremost organization for interpreting the intersection of railroad art and culture with America’s history and culture.

I will discuss the ongoing photographic project (2007- present) From the Main Line, exploring the transitioning landscape along the Pennsylvania Railroad from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the former Standard Railroad of the World. Details to follow.

Lake Forest College, 555 North Sheridan Road, Lake Forrest, IL 60045

I look forward to sharing another year of history and stories from the great Pennsylvania Railroad. I encourage you all to stay in touch and please feel free to share your stories and experiences with the railroad. I am only one person in the fraternity of countless historians and enthusiasts of our railroad heritage; it is exciting for me to understand a railroad that I never had the good fortune to experience though the oral histories and photographs of others!

As always, thank you for your time and support!

Sincerely,

Michael Froio

Giving Thanks

Mainline looking west, Mifflintown Pennsylvania
Mainline looking west, Mifflintown Pennsylvania

Dear Friends,

The year 2012 has been incredible for the Mainline Project, making new work, new friends and opening new opportunities for 2013. Since I started writing about the project here in June of 2010 traffic on the blog has grown from just sixty views a month to a current average of 1500 a month and unceremoniously in the last few weeks I published post # 100. What started as a personal investigation of the fabled Pennsylvania Railroad has turned into a wonderful experience, sharing information, personal accounts and imagery with so many great people.

As we near Thanksgiving I want to say thank you to all of you who have shared your knowledge, supported me and encouraged this project, justifying the countless hours of work I have invested. Having the opportunity to work with so many like-minded people and share this project with such a diverse community is truly what makes the project so rewarding.

From my family to yours, have a safe and wonderful Thanksgiving!

Sincerely,

Michael Froio 

Susquehanna Reprise

Approaching thunderstorm and Hill Island from the east bank, Royalton, Pennsylvania.

Approaching thunderstorm and Hill Island from the east bank, Royalton, Pennsylvania.

Though we've discussed the trials and tribulations the Pennsylvania Railroad endured sharing the banks of the Susquehanna River, particularly on the Columbia and York Haven lines, I would like to take a chance to celebrate the river itself. The Susquehanna runs approximately 464 miles from the uplands of New York and Western Pennsylvania to create the longest river on the east coast to drain into the Atlantic Ocean. The river's watershed drains some 27,500 square miles encompassing nearly half of the State of Pennsylvania. The broad shallow river winds a wandering course to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay at Harve De Grace, Maryland. Through various routes including the mainline, York Haven, Port Road and Northern Central the PRR follows considerable lengths of the Susquehanna. In particular, for this post at least, we celebrate some of the natural beauty of the mighty river in context of Lancaster County and the PRR York Haven and Columbia branch. Enjoy!

Clearing fog, Roundtop Mountain, from the mouth of Chiques Creek. Marietta, Pennsylvania 

Clearing fog, Roundtop Mountain, from the mouth of Chiques Creek. Marietta, Pennsylvania 

Confluence of Chiques Creek and the Susquehanna, framed by the York Haven Line Bridge. Marietta, Pennsylvania

Confluence of Chiques Creek and the Susquehanna, framed by the York Haven Line Bridge. Marietta, Pennsylvania

Mooring posts and Turkey Hill Point, Washington Boro, Pennsylvania.

Mooring posts and Turkey Hill Point, Washington Boro, Pennsylvania.

Royalton's Early Transportation Roots

The canal lock that survives along Water Street in Royalton survives in ruin as quiet testimony of rail's triumph over canal transportation in the race to build America. One of 14 locks along the Eastern Division Canal it was part of Pennsylvania’s failed Mainline of Public Works that gave way to the Pennsylvania Railroad.

The canal lock that survives along Water Street in Royalton survives in ruin as quiet testimony of rail's triumph over canal transportation in the race to build America. One of 14 locks along the Eastern Division Canal it was part of Pennsylvania’s failed Mainline of Public Works that gave way to the Pennsylvania Railroad.

In a strip of land between the former Harrisburg and Lancaster Railroad's Columbia branch and the Susquehanna River in modern day Royalton, Pennsylvania lays one of the few remaining clues of another transportation empire that succumbed to the practicality of the railroads. The State owned Mainline of Public Works was completed in 1834 creating a multimodal transportation network to connect Philadelphia and Pittsburgh in direct competition with the Erie Canal. Consisting of over 273 miles of canal and 120 miles of railroad, the system utilized various modes of transport based on  geographic necessity. The Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad connected its namesake towns to the Eastern Division of the Pennsylvania Canal. The Eastern Division ran 43 miles north from Columbia along the east bank of the Susquehanna River in Lancaster and Dauphin Counties.  The canal made a northern connection to the Juniata Division Canal at Duncan’s Island and intermediate connections to Harrisburg and the Union Canal in Middletown. The Juniata Division paralelled the Juniata River making connection with the Allegheny Portage Railroad in Hollidaysburg where canal boats were then transported by rail over a series of inclined planes to cross the Allegheny ridge at a summit of 2322 feet above sea level. West of the Allegheny summit the Portage Road  made connection to the Western Division Canal in the City of Johnstown following the path of the Conemaugh, Kiskiminetas and Allegheny Rivers westward to Pittsburgh and the Ohio River.

1875 map of Londonderry Township illustrates the Eastern Division of the Pennsylvania Canal as well as the railroads that would put the Mainline of Public Works out of business. Map Collection of  http://maley.net/atlas/ .

1875 map of Londonderry Township illustrates the Eastern Division of the Pennsylvania Canal as well as the railroads that would put the Mainline of Public Works out of business. Map Collection of http://maley.net/atlas/.

The dangerous and slow inclined planes of the Portage Road along with the canals would prove to be the downfall of the Public Works system limited by capacity and the seasonal nature of operations. The vast and diverse infrastructure needed constant work, many cases in remote areas making the system costly to maintain. By the 1840’s some investors began to look to the railroad as a better transportation solution and in 1846 the charter to build the Pennsylvania Railroad, a privately owned rail route from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh would challenge the Public Works System running almost exactly the same route. While the benefit of rail transportation over the Public Works was quickly realized subsequent expansion east to Philadelphia in 1854 would create the first all rail route across the state, dealing the final blow to the canals and Portage Railroad. The PRR eventually purchased most of the bankrupt Public Works system from the state to improve their mainline, often offering favorable routes alongside of towns rather than the early street running alignments of the original 1846 railroad.

Philadelphia Division: Royalton

Plate drawing of Roy Interlocking circa 1957. By this date this facility was a remote interlocking under the control of the operator at State Tower in Harrisburg.  Note the jump over that positions the freight main on the proper side of the passenger mainline to diverge south along the Susquehanna to make connection with the York Haven line at Shock Mills. Plate drawing collection of  The Broad Way . 

Plate drawing of Roy Interlocking circa 1957. By this date this facility was a remote interlocking under the control of the operator at State Tower in Harrisburg.  Note the jump over that positions the freight main on the proper side of the passenger mainline to diverge south along the Susquehanna to make connection with the York Haven line at Shock Mills. Plate drawing collection of The Broad Way

Straddling the towns of Middletown and Royalton in Dauphin County, Royalton interlocking was a strategic point where most freight and passenger traffic separated for the trip east to New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. Approximately 10 miles east from State Interlocking the mainline and Columbia branch (today Norfolk Southern's Royalton branch) ran along side each other with the freight operating on tracks furthest to the north. The Columbia branch, which drops south along the Susquehanna diverted freight trains away from the main at Royalton requiring traffic to cross into the path of the busy passenger main. To avoid this potential traffic disruption the PRR applied a proven technique of building a fly-over to allow all tracks/trains to gain proper position without the need to physically cross or intersect the other route.

View of current interlocking looking west at Roy. In the distance one can see the eastbound home signals and Amtrak's Middletown station, the overhead bridge is Burd Street. Note the older style relay hut and air plant on the right side of the tracks, this was the site of the original 2 story frame tower that controlled the interlocking prior to the late 1950’s project which moved control of this interlocking to State. Norfolk Southern operates the line diverging to the left as the Royalton Branch, which connects to the Enola and Port Road branches at Shocks Mill. This was the former PRR Columbia branch and at one time was a double track electrified artery that linked the mainline with the low-grade line to points east.

View of current interlocking looking west at Roy. In the distance one can see the eastbound home signals and Amtrak's Middletown station, the overhead bridge is Burd Street. Note the older style relay hut and air plant on the right side of the tracks, this was the site of the original 2 story frame tower that controlled the interlocking prior to the late 1950’s project which moved control of this interlocking to State. Norfolk Southern operates the line diverging to the left as the Royalton Branch, which connects to the Enola and Port Road branches at Shocks Mill. This was the former PRR Columbia branch and at one time was a double track electrified artery that linked the mainline with the low-grade line to points east.

Prior to the late 1950's Royalton interlocking was controlled by a two story frame tower that sat on the eastern side of the tracks (railroad was oriented north - south here). The early interlocking plant was of an older design using a mechanical armstrong complex to control the switches and signals between the mainline and Columbia branch. The Columbia branch served as a back road connection from the mainline and freight yards in Harrisburg  to the low-grade route via Shocks Mill allowing freight from all directions to bypass congestion in Enola when necessary. In the late 1950’s Royalton interlocking was made a remote facility named Roy with control given to the operator at State Tower in Harrisburg. Evidence of this project survives in the form of a single story relay house that rests on the foundation of the former tower. As part of Amtrak’s Keystone Line rehab, Roy was rebuilt once again providing Amtrak with a set of crossovers for operational flexibility (the line is now governed by Rule 261-allowing bi-directional traffic flow) while maintaining the connection to the Royalton branch.

The single story brick building next to the westbound home signal protecting the Columbia Branch was a small yard office and maintainers building. The structure survives today to serve Amtrak C&S crews, having recently received new windows and an extension, evident by the different color brick on the left side of the structure.

The single story brick building next to the westbound home signal protecting the Columbia Branch was a small yard office and maintainers building. The structure survives today to serve Amtrak C&S crews, having recently received new windows and an extension, evident by the different color brick on the left side of the structure.

Special thanks to Mr. Don Rittler, who's input on operations at Royalton provided some insight on this relatively obscure facility on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Don worked as a tower operator for the PRR and its successors in the Harrisburg region from 1937-1979.

Chickies Rock

View looking north of Marietta and the York Haven line along the Susquehanna from Chiques Rock, a prominent geological feature which provides a breathtaking view of the river valley. Note the catenary poles here, which still carry a high voltage feeder line from the Safe Harbor Hydroelectric Plant to Amtrak where it supplies catenary power via the substation at Royalton.

View looking north of Marietta and the York Haven line along the Susquehanna from Chiques Rock, a prominent geological feature which provides a breathtaking view of the river valley. Note the catenary poles here, which still carry a high voltage feeder line from the Safe Harbor Hydroelectric Plant to Amtrak where it supplies catenary power via the substation at Royalton.

Chickies Rock is a unique geological feature along the Susquehanna River known as an anticline, an arch of exposed rock arranged in layers that bend in opposite directions from its peak. Chickies is classified as the largest example of its kind on the East Coast. This particular location also played a significant role during the Civil War. As a highpoint along the Susquehanna River, the bluff was a strategic location for the Union Army during the Confederate’s occupation of Wrightsville across from Columbia during the Gettysburg Campaign. Later the Columbia and Donnegal Electric Railway would build a trolley line north from Columbia to the peak of the Rocks where it also constructed an amusement park. The line scaled 1900 feet up the west side of Chickies Hill Road on a 6% grade abruptly turning toward the peak to access the park. Opening in 1893 the line later extended down to Marietta providing both towns access to the popular recreation area. The trolley line and park continued to operate until its abandonment in April of 1932.

Stereo-view of Chickies Rock. This view illustrates the original Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster alignment of what would become the PRR Columbia Branch. Image made by the W. T. Purviance Company between 1870-1880. Collection of the  NY Public Library System

Stereo-view of Chickies Rock. This view illustrates the original Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster alignment of what would become the PRR Columbia Branch. Image made by the W. T. Purviance Company between 1870-1880. Collection of the NY Public Library System

Looking to the north from Chickies Rock one can see the PRR York Haven line, the former alignment of the Columbia branch and the town of Marietta. The rail lines converge at the base of the rocks to squeeze south (railroad east) on a narrow flat along side the Susquehanna River. It was at this location during the construction of the low-grade that the PRR decided it would build the York Haven line out on a fill to avoid the curving profile of the older alignment between here and Columbia. As a result Kerbaugh Lake, named after one of the biggest contractors on the low-grade project was created. Though referred to as a lake the area was really a low laying swamp with poor drainage that separated the two alignments. In 1936 the flood prone Susquehanna rose to levels that consumed the new fill destroying the vital low-grade, flooding Kerbaugh Lake and the Columbia branch along the shore. The devastation required months to rebuild the York Haven line and forced the decision to abandon the older Columbia branch alignment. During this period the PRR also filled in Kerbaugh Lake and improved drainage in the area by installing several culverts between the lake and Susquehanna under the right of way. Today most of this area is part of the Chickies Rock Park operated by the Lancaster County Parks Department and provides some beautiful views along various trails following the former Columbia branch between Marietta and old Kerbaugh Lake in addition to park high above on Chickies Rock itself.

A 1906 USGS topographical map illustrating the former alignments of the PRR, note the newer York Haven line stays close the shore on the Eastern (top) bank of the Susquehanna all the way from Shocks Mills (left) to Columbia (right). This included the fill across a river bend just beneath Hempfield which became known as Kerbaugh Lake. Also noteworthy is the trackage snaking up the inland side of Chickies Ridge, this was the Columbia & Donnegal Electric Railway, a trolley line which operated an amusement park at Chickies Rock.

A 1906 USGS topographical map illustrating the former alignments of the PRR, note the newer York Haven line stays close the shore on the Eastern (top) bank of the Susquehanna all the way from Shocks Mills (left) to Columbia (right). This included the fill across a river bend just beneath Hempfield which became known as Kerbaugh Lake. Also noteworthy is the trackage snaking up the inland side of Chickies Ridge, this was the Columbia & Donnegal Electric Railway, a trolley line which operated an amusement park at Chickies Rock.

A 1956 USGS topographical map showing the changes as a result of the 1936 flood. Note Kerbaugh Lake is filled in, the Columbia branch is gone and the Columbia and Donnegal Electric Trolley and park have been abandoned.

A 1956 USGS topographical map showing the changes as a result of the 1936 flood. Note Kerbaugh Lake is filled in, the Columbia branch is gone and the Columbia and Donnegal Electric Trolley and park have been abandoned.

Philadelphia Division: Rowenna - Marietta

Continuing East on the York Haven line from Shocks Mill Bridge, we encounter more history on the fabled low-grade project of Alexander Cassatt. The east bank of the Susquehanna River was host to two major modes of transportation by the mid 1800’s, the Public Works Canal and the Columbia Branch of the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Railroad. By the time plans came for the new low-grade the canals had been largely abandoned for some time, however the Columbia Branch became a vital link to the original Philadelphia and Columbia as well as the Columbia & Port Deposit Railroad providing connections to the mainline via Royalton. While designing the new low-grade the Columbia branch was the choice line to connect the Northern Central via the new Shocks Mills bridge, the old alignment would require revisions to fit the requirements of the new line. By the turn of the century Cassatt’s low-grade project would bring big changes to the local railroad scene. With the consolidation and construction of the new freight network many of the older track alignments were abandoned in favor of a separate right of way to avoid pedestrian and street traffic. Common to many locations on the PRR, these abandoned segments were either sold off or utilized as stub end tracks to serve industries still active near the town centers.

Interlocking plate of "Shocks" location of the junction of the former Harrisburg and Lancaster branch between Royalton and Columbia and the low-grade York Haven Line. Note the track diverting to the right of the interlocking point titled "to yard", this is the original alignment of the H&L Columbia Branch retained to serve several freight customers.     Plate collection of   The Broad Way  .

Interlocking plate of "Shocks" location of the junction of the former Harrisburg and Lancaster branch between Royalton and Columbia and the low-grade York Haven Line. Note the track diverting to the right of the interlocking point titled "to yard", this is the original alignment of the H&L Columbia Branch retained to serve several freight customers. Plate collection of The Broad Way.

In the village of Rowenna, just east of the Shocks Mill Bridge, a segment of the old Harrisburg and Lancaster drops off the embankment where the Royalton - Columbia branch and the York Haven line meet at an interlocking simply known as Shocks. This spur continued parallel to the mainline for several miles accessing agricultural industries and a military transfer depot constructed during World War II. Sill in service today, this branch serves the former Military installation, now an industrial park as well as a feed trans-load facility off Vinegar Ferry Road.

Remaining trackage from the old Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Railroad's Royalton - Columbia Branch, now an industrial track retained to serve a few local customers. The active 1902 York Haven line alignment is out of view to the to right on an elevated fill to accommodate trains off the Shocks Mill Bridge  .

Remaining trackage from the old Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Railroad's Royalton - Columbia Branch, now an industrial track retained to serve a few local customers. The active 1902 York Haven line alignment is out of view to the to right on an elevated fill to accommodate trains off the Shocks Mill Bridge.

Just a few miles further east we enter the Borough of Marietta. Established in 1812, Marietta once boasted many river, rail and canal dependent industries. On the south end of town remnants of the old Columbia Branch surface in an isolated area bound by Chiques Creek and Furnace Road. This area, which the creek and a local iron furnace are named after (albeit different spellings) derives from the Native American word Chiquesalunga, or crayfish. In different eras it has been spelled Chickies, Chikis and Chiques but all refer to this common meaning. The Chickies Furnace #1 opened in 1845 with production thriving until the late 1890’s closing due to better, more efficient facilities, most likely in nearby Steelton.

Remaining bridge piers of the former Columbia branch stand up-stream in Chiques Creek. In view is one of William H. Brown's typical stone arch bridges on the active York Have line. This area is located at the former site of the Chickies Furnace, an early site of iron production in the 1800's.

Remaining bridge piers of the former Columbia branch stand up-stream in Chiques Creek. In view is one of William H. Brown's typical stone arch bridges on the active York Have line. This area is located at the former site of the Chickies Furnace, an early site of iron production in the 1800's.

Among the foundations and rubble that remains of the former Chickies Furnace #1, the Columbia branch can be found along the old canal bed. You can spot telltale signs of PRR construction methods, the most immediate is the use of the ubiquitous 3 pipe railings on a bridge over a sluice between the canal and creek. Piers also remain from a deck bridge that carried the branch over the creek prior to the 1936 flood while the former roadbed of cinder ballast provides reference of where the line entered the area from the west. Just down stream on Chiques Creek, the York Haven line crosses the outlet to the Susquehanna on a W. H. Brown trademark 3 arch stone bridge well above high water. The history of when the Columbia branch was abandoned ties into not only the construction of the low-grade but also the great flood of 1936, subject of next week’s post!

Alternate view looking upstream at Chickies Furnace reveals the dam that fed a channel for the old iron works as well as the various walls that date back to the original 1846 furnace site. Note the piers from the former Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Railroad Columbia branch. The piers were most likely upgraded around the same time the low-grade was built judging by the similarities in the stone when compared to the newer arch bridge down stream.

Alternate view looking upstream at Chickies Furnace reveals the dam that fed a channel for the old iron works as well as the various walls that date back to the original 1846 furnace site. Note the piers from the former Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Railroad Columbia branch. The piers were most likely upgraded around the same time the low-grade was built judging by the similarities in the stone when compared to the newer arch bridge down stream.