Photographs & History

Photographs and History

Sadsbury | Six Miles of Fill

A temporary wooden trestle supports two diminutive 3-foot gauge steam locomotives and their hopper cars, used to haul fill material from land holdings along Zion Hill to the   six   mile   fill Charles A. Sims & Company constructed for the easternmost segment of the Atglen & Susquehanna Branch  .

A temporary wooden trestle supports two diminutive 3-foot gauge steam locomotives and their hopper cars, used to haul fill material from land holdings along Zion Hill to the six mile fill Charles A. Sims & Company constructed for the easternmost segment of the Atglen & Susquehanna Branch.

Concurrent to the improvements on the main line at North Bend railroad contractor, Charles A. Sims & Company of Philadelphia was awarded the contract to complete the grading and masonry work for the easternmost segment of the Atglen & Susquehanna project in 1903. Sim's crews began the monumental task of building the new right of way in Sadsbury Township between Atglen (A&S milepost 3.3) west to Milepost 9, just beyond Lamparter Road, a total of almost six miles. Diverging from the shared right of way of the PRR Main Line that ran alongside the ridge of the North Valley Hills, the new line required a massive earthen fill to maintain the gentle grade as it veered southwest into the rolling countryside of Southern Lancaster County, making the ascent to Mars Hill Summit. 

Workers pose in front of the masonry work of the 60' arch spanning Noble Road and the East Branch of the Octoraro Creek. While it appears that much of the stonework is complete, the task of backfilling the span and wing walls is yet to be completed as construction progresses west toward Mars Hill Summit. 

Workers pose in front of the masonry work of the 60' arch spanning Noble Road and the East Branch of the Octoraro Creek. While it appears that much of the stonework is complete, the task of backfilling the span and wing walls is yet to be completed as construction progresses west toward Mars Hill Summit. 

Material excavated from various improvement projects had been stockpiled on landholdings in the vicinity of Zion Hill. A six-mile narrow-gauge railroad was constructed to transport the fill material from these deposits, crossing over the mainline on a wooden trestle and on to the new right-of-way via temporary trackage. The usual assortment of manpower, steam shovels and a copious amount of dynamite were then employed to generate additional material needed to construct the new right of way. Part of this six-mile segment involved building the first bridge from the east; a large 60' single-arch masonry structure that spanned the historic Noble Road and the East Branch of the Octoraro Creek. The stone arch and wing walls were erected and then backfilled with material hauled in by Sim's narrow gauge railroad, a process repeated countless times as the line reached further west into Lancaster County. 

While Sim's length of the A&S and the rest of the branch has found a renewed purpose as a recreational resource since abandonment in the Conrail era, the arch at Noble Road remains a symbolic portal, marking the crossing from Chester to Lancaster County. More importantly, it is a reminder of the stark contrast between the A&S and the role it played in our national railway network and the quiet life on the farm, typical of Southern Lancaster County. 

Changes at North Bend

Some time ago we left off on the Main Line tour in Christiana, Pennsylvania, crossing from Lancaster to Chester County, traversing the North Bend Cut along Zion Hill. What seems today like another unremarked view from the Main Line, the area around North Bend was a place essential to operations on one of the busiest transportation networks in the country. In the Brown era of the late 19th Century - early 20th Century, North Bend saw the realignment and expansion of the mainline, construction of the Atglen & Susquehanna Low Grade, the installation of the Atglen water pans, and later in 1938 the final phase of electrification. The endless parade of traffic during World War II was followed by a long, slow decline of the PRR system, visualized by the rationalization of the physical plant and facilities that continued well into the Penn Central, Amtrak and Conrail eras. The photographs here depict over 100 years of change on the ever-evolving railroad landscape.  

With Christiana in view, the distant signal to NI interlocking at Atglen stands prominently in this view looking west in the North Bend Cut around the turn of the century. Moores Memorial Library, Christiana, PA

With Christiana in view, the distant signal to NI interlocking at Atglen stands prominently in this view looking west in the North Bend Cut around the turn of the century. Moores Memorial Library, Christiana, PA

Charles Sims & Co, the contractor, tasked to construct the first seven miles of the A&S Branch erected this narrow-gauge railroad between an area near Zion Hill and the new Low Grade. The temporary line hauled material stored on local land holdings to the new elevated right of way, which required massive amounts of fill to maintain a gentle grade across the undulating landscape of Southern Lancaster County. Moores Memorial Library, Christiana, PA.

Charles Sims & Co, the contractor, tasked to construct the first seven miles of the A&S Branch erected this narrow-gauge railroad between an area near Zion Hill and the new Low Grade. The temporary line hauled material stored on local land holdings to the new elevated right of way, which required massive amounts of fill to maintain a gentle grade across the undulating landscape of Southern Lancaster County. Moores Memorial Library, Christiana, PA.

This 1962 view of an eastbound passenger train winding through the curve at North Bend shows evidence of the PRR's rationing of excess capacity with the removal of two of the four main tracks. While the era of steam has long since passed, a coal-fired boiler house remains, off to the right, once part of the extensive Atgen track pan system that allowed steam trains to take water at speed on both the Main Line and Atglen & Susquehanna Branch (visible behind the structure). James P. Shuman photograph, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC. 

This 1962 view of an eastbound passenger train winding through the curve at North Bend shows evidence of the PRR's rationing of excess capacity with the removal of two of the four main tracks. While the era of steam has long since passed, a coal-fired boiler house remains, off to the right, once part of the extensive Atgen track pan system that allowed steam trains to take water at speed on both the Main Line and Atglen & Susquehanna Branch (visible behind the structure). James P. Shuman photograph, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC. 

In this westward view of the North Bend Cut, near the vicinity of Shuman's image, we see two tracks remain, now under the guise of the Commonwealth funded Keystone Corridor, operated by Amtrak. The contemporary railroad landscape without the context of historical images can still present a beautiful study in light and shadow, in this modern view. 

In this westward view of the North Bend Cut, near the vicinity of Shuman's image, we see two tracks remain, now under the guise of the Commonwealth funded Keystone Corridor, operated by Amtrak. The contemporary railroad landscape without the context of historical images can still present a beautiful study in light and shadow, in this modern view. 

Celebrating Horseshoe

The Kittanning Reservoir occupies the gap created by Burgoon Run, where J. Edgar Thomson was faced with a decision of spanning the gap or filling the smaller Glen White and Kittanning Runs. The purpose of utilizing the horseshoe design is evident in the elevation changes of the railroad, visible above the gap along the left and right hillsides. 

The Kittanning Reservoir occupies the gap created by Burgoon Run, where J. Edgar Thomson was faced with a decision of spanning the gap or filling the smaller Glen White and Kittanning Runs. The purpose of utilizing the horseshoe design is evident in the elevation changes of the railroad, visible above the gap along the left and right hillsides. 

In 1851 J. Edgar Thomson, the first Chief Engineer of the young Pennsylvania Railroad began construction of the Mountain Division between the Johnstown area and Altoona.  Thomson faced two significant obstacles on the division, how to tunnel through the solid rock walls near the summit and how to get the Main Line from Altoona west up the mountain.

An eastbound descends into Horseshoe Curve, seen from the Kittanning Reservoir. 

An eastbound descends into Horseshoe Curve, seen from the Kittanning Reservoir. 

Thomson's endeavor for the PRR was not the first route over the Alleghenies in Blair County. The Allegheny Portage Railroad, part of the state-owned Main Line of Public Works completed in 1834, utilized a series ten inclined planes, five on either side of the summit, to surmount the Alleghenies. It proved to be a slow and dangerous part of an already arduous journey that required train, canal and these inclined planes to travel across the Commonwealth, taking some 4.5 days. 

View eastward from atop of Tunnel Hill, where Thomson faced the challenge of building the line through solid rock requiring cuts and tunnels nearing the Summit. 

View eastward from atop of Tunnel Hill, where Thomson faced the challenge of building the line through solid rock requiring cuts and tunnels nearing the Summit. 

Thomson opted to by-pass the troubled Main Line of Public Works and the APRR all together, turning west from the Juniata Valley in Altoona. To maintain a route with a ruling grade of 1.8% the new railroad would hug the foothills toward the summit, utilizing the natural topography of the ridge to Kittanning Point. Here, the Kittanning and Glen White Runs converge in the valley of Burgoon Run creating a significant challenge. Faced with a decision of spanning the considerable gap of Burgoon Run, Thomson, instead employed Irish laborers wielding pickaxes and shovels to fill the gaps of Kittanning and Glen White Run and thus completing the arced curve around Burgoon Run that became known as the Horseshoe Curve.

A helper set nears the point of the Allegheny Summit in Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, west of the Gallitzin and Allegheny Tunnels. 

A helper set nears the point of the Allegheny Summit in Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, west of the Gallitzin and Allegheny Tunnels. 


The line over the Alleghenies and Horse Shoe Curve opened on for service on February 15, 1854. Though the State Works attempted to improve their route by opening the New Portage Railroad in 1855, it ultimately failed, later becoming part of the PRR system, serving as an alternative route in times where traffic warranted its use. After 164 years of continual operation Horseshoe Curve continues to be a vital piece of rail transportation infrastructure, a testament to Thomson’s engineering ability in constructing one of the most celebrated railroads in American history. 

Winter Exhibitions

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9 New Jersey Photographers | Stockton University - Through March 28th, 2018 | Pictorialism, Pure or Straight Photography, Modernism, Social Documentary Photography, Post Modernism - like any other art forms, photography has had its share of dominant styles promoted by leading practitioners, critics, curators and by publications, and enshrined in galleries and museums. But today every style, every ism, every mode of making and printing photographs vies equally for attention and appreciation. 

This group of New Jersey photographers represents that diversity in striking ways. Some document the actual world unadorned, from images of the landscape to those of the inner city. Some make pictures that are totally abstract. Some take the world as it is. Some construct what they are going to photograph. Some print using present digital technologies, some using traditional 20th-century chemical processes, some using older alternative photographic processes. Some do not even use a camera, relying instead on light itself or even photographic chemicals alone to create an image. 

In an era where almost none of the billions of photographs made every year are ever printed, this exhibition not only presents some of the wide diversity of image making among photographic artists today, but allows us to contemplate the exquisite nature of the photographic print as an object. 

Stephen Perloff, Curator. 


I am honored to be part of this incredible exhibition curated by Stephen Perloff, editor of the Photo Review and the Photograph Collector. The exhibition, featuring the work of 9 NJ based photographers is on view through March 28th, with a closing reception and talk with Curator Stephen Perloff on Tuesday, March 6th at 5 PM.

The Stockton University is located at 101 Vera King Farris Drive, Galloway, NJ.  The campus Art Galleries are located in L-wing adjacent to the Performing Arts Center; visitors can park in Lots 6 or 7.  


In addition to the  9 NJ Photographers show, I also have several pieces hanging in two ongoing group exhibitions on view in the Delaware Valley. 

Photography 37 - Perkins Center for the Arts  - Through March 26th

Perkins 37th annual photography exhibition exemplifies the best and most innovative work by photographers from throughout the Mid-Atlantic region and beyond. This year's exhibition was juried by Hope Proper, renowned collector, former Curator of Exhibitions & Founder of Perkins Center’s Annual Photography Exhibition. 

Gallery Hours
Thursdays & Fridays 10 am - 2 pm
Saturday & Sunday 12 pm - 4 pm
This exhibition is free and open to the public.

Perkins Center for the Arts
395 Kings Highway | Moorestown, NJ 08057 


2018 Professional Artist Members Exhibition - Main Line Art Center - Through February 15, 2018

2018 Professional Artist Members Exhibition at the Mainline Art Center, in Haverford, PA. The exhibition is a celebration of the MLAC members’ support and creative energy, featuring a range of works from photography, sculpture, painting, printmaking, and ceramics. 

Gallery Hours
Monday through Thursday: 10 AM to 8 PM, 
Friday through Sunday: 10 AM to 4 PM. 
This exhibition is free and open to the public. 

The Main Line Art Center
746 Panmure Road, Haverford PA

Holiday Wishes - From The Main Line

A light set of Norfolk Southern helper locomotives nears the Allegheny Summit in Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, on the original line opened by the PRR in 1854. 

A light set of Norfolk Southern helper locomotives nears the Allegheny Summit in Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, on the original line opened by the PRR in 1854. 

Since the Pennsylvania Railroad started moving trains across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a railroad empire began to take shape, eventually becoming a leader in the industry, an innovator of technology, and the model of the modern corporation. The storied history of the Pennsylvania Railroad is a big part of the American story, connecting people and industry, moving them safely and efficiently across the land. 

When I set out some time ago to document the Pennsylvania Railroad, I had an idea of what to expect, what I might learn, and what I would see along the railroad. What I did not anticipate, is how many wonderful individuals and organizations I would come to work with or the opportunities I would have to share the Main Line project. Reflecting on another incredible year, I would like to thank you all for your continued support. The Main Line project and all its associated endeavors continue to move ahead, and 2018 is shaping up to be an excellent year for new projects, exhibitions, and opportunities. I have put together some of my favorite holiday posts for you to enjoy and as always new content will resume in the new year.
 
From my family to yours, Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays and may you all have a safe and healthy New Year!

Sincerely,
 
Michael Froio


Of Railroads & Holidays | For many, the railroads have long been associated with the holiday season. The notion of the long journey home to see loved ones or the family tradition of setting up the model trains from generations ago under the tree seems universal. TV and Cinema have celebrated the train countless times during the holiday season, like when Ralphie, his brother, and friends marveled over the window display of Lionel trains in the cult classic, A Christmas Story. Or when the Hollywood production based on Chris Van Allsburg's 1985 book, The Polar Express has the Pere Marquette 1225 take a central role in making the journey to the North Pole. (Read More)


The Liberty Limited "AND NOW, in time for the holidays, I bring you the best Christmas story you never heard." A heartwarming story from Ronnie Polaneczky's article published in the Philadelphia Daily News on December 22, 2005

It started last "We have to let them know we care," Vivian told Bennett. So they organized a trip to bring soldiers from Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bethesda Naval Hospital to the annual Army-Navy football game in Philly, on Dec. 3. Christmas, when Bennett and Vivian Levin were overwhelmed by sadness while listening to radio reports of injured American troops. (Read More)


Holiday Traditions - This time of year, family and friends come together to celebrate the holidays with traditions developed over generations. As a part of our family tradition, I have the pleasure to read to my children on Christmas Eve as my father did before, the fabled poem, The Night Before Christmas by Clement Clark Moore. First published anonymously in December of 1823, it is now the tradition in many American families to read the poem on Christmas Eve.

The story and illustrations presented here were made in 1953 by Pennsylvania Railroad employee, William W. Seigford Jr. who maintained an office at the Harrisburg Passenger Station. (Read More)


Model Trains | A Holiday Tradition -  As a welcome change from my normal writing and research I have often celebrated the tradition of digging out the model trains of various vintage after Thanksgiving for the Christmas season in various articles and images. Last year I highlighted an icon of the 20th Century: The Lionel Company. I grew up with my father's Lionel trains, loving the idea of these rugged three-railed trains, the smell of ozone and smoke pellets, the automated accessories, the die-cast metal, but in reality, the noise of those things scared the hell out of me! (Read More)

Fire on the Line!

The massive Safe Harbor Bridge was just west of the temporary block station named Fire which was put into service in 1959. The block station and crossovers were located on the A&S Branch up on the embankment pictured here in the top right of the image, the Columbia & Port Deposit Branch is the line in the foreground.

The massive Safe Harbor Bridge was just west of the temporary block station named Fire which was put into service in 1959. The block station and crossovers were located on the A&S Branch up on the embankment pictured here in the top right of the image, the Columbia & Port Deposit Branch is the line in the foreground.

In a previous post, Managing the Line, we detailed the operations of dispatching trains on the Atglen & Susquehanna branch, one particular anomaly escaped the article. Thanks to the work of Abram Burnett who interviewed the late H. Wayne Frey a former PRR Block Operator, I am pleased to share an account of a brief occurrence on the A&S that necessitated an additional block station for a short time.

On Thursday, July 30th, 1959 Philadelphia Region general order No. 710 was put into effect to address a rising situation on the A&S branch just east of the Safe Harbor Bridge over the Conestoga River. Officials and crews discovered settling in the eastbound main (No. 1 Track) the result of an underground blaze ignited by a recent brush fire on the embankment. Officials found that the fill the A&S rode on comprised of dredged material that was suspected to contain river coal making the soil susceptible to fire.

Annotated track chart and General Order No. 710 effective July 30th, 1959 outlining the implementation of temporary block station Fire, Documents from the late H. Wayne Frey courtesy of Abram Burnett. 

Officials faced the issue of how to mitigate the situation while keeping trains moving through the area. The railroad installed a set of electric powered crossovers and signals between the compromised No. 1 track and the in-service No. 2 track to create a single-track gauntlet of approximately 700 feet. The railroad established a block station aptly named Fire; In service 24/7, the small wood shack outfitted with four small table interlocking switches (two for switch controls, two for signals) operated around the clock until sometime between February and April of 1961.  The stub-ended sides of the crossovers on No. 1 were retained to house tank cars supplied by Dupont Chemical who was contracted to extinguish the fire. As a means to prevent the situation from compromising the No 2 main track, the railroad drove sheet piles in between the tracks and installed a pipe system to feed the chemicals and water down into the subterranean fire.  Late in 1959, the nearby Susquehanna River was experiencing particularly severe ice jams that impacted the Columbia & Port Deposit Branch located at the bottom of the same smoldering embankment. A road crew on the Port Road brought a train to stop in the vicinity of Safe Harbor due to ice when an underground explosion occurred blowing out a part of the embankment. Fearing the worst the crew jumped from their locomotive. Fortunately, the worst injury was the broken ankle of the engineer, and there was no significant loss of life or property. In the first quarter of 1961, Dupont successfully extinguished the fire, and the A&S resumed normal operations. With No. 1 track rebuilt and the tempory switches and signals removed, the railroad closed its newest block station just shy of two years in existence. 

 

Summer News and Events

Greetings! I hope everyone is having a great summer and taking some much deserved time off to enjoy the season with family and friends. Here is a quick list of some upcoming and ongoing events pertaining to the Main Line Project! 

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   Semi-automatic signals beckon outside the window of the station waiting room in Chester, Pennsylvania on the former Chesapeake Division   mainline   to Washington D.C., 2016.

Semi-automatic signals beckon outside the window of the station waiting room in Chester, Pennsylvania on the former Chesapeake Division mainline to Washington D.C., 2016.

They All Fall Down | Lamenting the loss of a classic PRR Signal - The Position Light
I am very excited to have a new article featured on the blog, The Trackside Photographer this week. The piece focuses on the Pennsylvania Railroad's classic Position Light signals, many of which face an uncertain future as railroads push to implement Positive Train Control. It's a sizable article featuring a lot of imagery, several which have never been published. Please pay the Trackside Photographer a visit if you haven't already, they are doing a fantastic job featuring a diverse range of photographers and writers whose work focuses on the railroad landscape, it's an honor to have work published there! 

Plate 36. B.Q. Tower and Signals - Bellewood, Pennsylvania, Middle Division (III-895), William H Rau, Altoona Public Library Collection. One of 27 images currently on display in the exhibition William H. Rau: Urban, Rural, Rail at the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art - Altoona.  

Plate 36. B.Q. Tower and Signals - Bellewood, Pennsylvania, Middle Division (III-895), William H Rau, Altoona Public Library Collection. One of 27 images currently on display in the exhibition William H. Rau: Urban, Rural, Rail at the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art - Altoona.  

Ongoing Exhibition: William H Rau: Urban, Rural, Rail

On view through September 9th, 2017. Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art - Altoona

The current exhibition on display at the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art, Altoona has more than a month remaining and is generating a lot of great feedback so far. The exhibition features a selection of Rau's Pennsylvania Railroad images from the Altoona Public Library collection, along with several images from the Main Line Project. If you are in the area, the exhibition at SAMA - Altoona is a must see! 

Rau Symposium - SAMA - Altoona: August 16

In conjunction with the ongoing exhibition, I will be speaking at a symposium along with Penn State - Altoona history lecturer Julie Fether who curated the show. My talk will focus on Rau's imagery and how it continues to inspire my project, while Julie will discuss how the show evolved, tying in influences from Harvard Landscape Studies Professor, John Stilgoe's writings and ideas on the "art and practice of 'seeing' landscape." 

The event is at the SAMA - Altoona location on Wednesday, August 16th from 11AM-1PM, lunch provided, and costs $15 ($14 for SAMA members). Reservations are required by calling the museum at (814) 946-4464 or emailing altoona@sama-art.org. 

Pop- Up Exhibition: The Study at University City - Philadelphia
On display through September 30th. 

An excellent opportunity came up recently to showcase some work from the Main Line Project, at the Study, a beautiful new Hotel in University City, central to Drexel University's campus at 33rd and Chestnut Streets, in Philadelphia. The small show includes ten pieces from the project and is free and open to the public. If you're in the area, please stop in and have a look! 

The Study at University City, 20 S 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA

Exhibition & Press: William H. Rau: Urban, Rural, Rail

It goes without saying that the work of William H. Rau has had a tremendous influence on my ongoing project, From the Main Line, so it gives me great pleasure to announce that I will have several pieces included in an exhibition at the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art titled William H. Rau: Urban, Rural, Rail in the heart of Pennsylvania Railroad territory, Altoona, Pennsylvania. The exhibition runs through September 9th and will include a symposium on August 16th in which I will discuss the role of Rau's imagery and how it has both informed and influenced my own. The exhibition has already received some terrific feedback, including this recent feature in the Altoona Mirror. I look forward to sharing more about this incredible show while continuing to explore the dialog with Rau's imagery for both inspiration and historical reference in documenting the former Standard Railroad of the World

Quadruple Track – Tanks, Monmouth Junction, New Jersey c. 1891. William H. Rau. The Altoona Public Library Collection

Quadruple Track – Tanks, Monmouth Junction, New Jersey c. 1891. William H. Rau. The Altoona Public Library Collection

Rau’s work captured the Allegheny landscape of the 1890s

SAMA-Altoona exhibits more vintage photographs
By Altoona Mirror Staff Writer  - Cherie Hicks

Another batch of cutting-edge photographs that captured the Allegheny landscape in the 1890s is now on display at the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art.

“William H. Rau: Urban, Rural, Rail” features 27 albumem and sepia-toned photographs taken by the commercial photographer who was commissioned by the Pennsylvania Railroad. The show, curated by Penn State Altoona history lecturer Julie Fether, runs through Sept. 9.

The exhibition takes viewers on a “photographic trip with Rau,” in which “hidden worlds become exposed ‘openings,'” a late 19th-century term used to describe landscape and landscape photography, Fether said.

“It shows not just the landscape that the railroad carved through, but the mark that the railroad made on the landscape and in the communities it created,” she said.

Main Line, looking west, Altoona, Pennsylvania. One of four images from the Main Line project accompanying the collection of Rau images in the exhibition at SAMA- Altoona

Main Line, looking west, Altoona, Pennsylvania. One of four images from the Main Line project accompanying the collection of Rau images in the exhibition at SAMA- Altoona

The exhibition follows the different PRR divisions that Rau tracked, from the Brooklyn Bridge in New York City to Pittsburgh. Rau (rhymes with how) was a successful commercial photographer in Philadelphia when the PRR commissioned him to travel its main line and take pictures of the beautiful scenery in an effort to lure tourists onboard trains.

“Today, these photographs are a testament to the emergence of photography used to promote travel and tourism,” Fether said. “Attracting the young and old, rich and poor, to the glamor of railroad travel, the rails provided an opportunity to participate in the power of acute observation from the window of a passenger car and experience new communities along the way.”

Rau, who died in 1920, produced a total of 463 photographs in his project, 273 of which are considered the Altoona collection and are owned by the Altoona Area Public Library and housed by SAMA. The other photos from the railroad project are owned by The Library Company of Philadelphia.

The current show is a follow-up to another exhibition of Rau photographs that Fether curated at SAMA-Altoona in 2015. With the museum only able to display about three dozen at a time, Fether said she had a theme in mind as she sifted through binders of 8-by-10-inch prints in the Altoona collection of Rau’s work.

Philadelphia, 50th Street Yard (West), c. 1891. William H. Rau. The Altoona Public Library Collection

Philadelphia, 50th Street Yard (West), c. 1891. William H. Rau. The Altoona Public Library Collection

As she was culling, she searched online for other Rau-related work and stumbled on Michael Froio, a Drexel University professor of photography whose contemporary work has been influenced by Rau.

“Even as the railroad has declined, there’s a timelessness to these pictures,” Fether said. “What do they look like today? That is why I reached out to Michael.”

The exhibition includes four black-and-white, contemporary pieces from Froio’s own project called From the Main Line that complement and pay homage to Rau’s photographs, Fether said. One such work is called “Main Line Looking West, Altoona, Pennsylvania,” and Froio said he clearly remembers the first time he saw Rau’s work.

“While I was instantly captivated by the subject matter in Rau’s photographs, it was more the approach of his work that left a lasting mark, illustrating not only the railroad but the engineering, landscape and architecture along the line,” he said. “The imagery by Rau left us with a rich visual legacy to derive tremendous amounts of information about the railway, the landscape and the energy of the industrial age.”

In Images like "Woodvale Yard, Franklin Boro, Pennsylvania", Rau's work both informs and inspires through understanding the history of place while responding to aesthetically choices like the use of light, composition and technical process. 

In Images like "Woodvale Yard, Franklin Boro, Pennsylvania", Rau's work both informs and inspires through understanding the history of place while responding to aesthetically choices like the use of light, composition and technical process. 

It shows “the prominent role the Pennsylvania Railroad played in developing the United States and the continual improvements they made to better themselves in the process,” Froio said.

Fether explained that part of Rau’s allure was how technically advanced he was for his time, experimenting with new photographic methods and constantly perfecting the process. Most of his pictures were printed on albumen photographic paper, or a paper coated with egg white and chemicals. PRR provided him with his own rail car, in which he could sleep and produce negatives and prints, and Rau did not disappoint.

“It is an absolute honor to be a part of this show, having a chance to hang work next to Rau’s,” Froio said.

Froio and Fether will be lead speakers at a symposium on Rau’s work and legacy at SAMA-Altoona on Aug. 16 at 11 a.m. Froio will discuss Rau’s influence on his own work. Fether said she will explain how the exhibition evolved. She also will explain some writings that are part of the show from John Stilgoe, a professor of the history of landscape development at Harvard University, and others on the “art and practice of ‘seeing’ landscape.”

The public is invited to the program, which costs $15 ($14 for SAMA members) and includes lunch. Reservations are required by calling the museum at (814) 946-4464 or emailing altoona@sama-art.org.

Upcoming Lecture | The Pennsylvania Railroad: A Legacy in Imagery

Stone bridges crossing the Neshaminy Creek, Pennsylvania Railroad Trenton Cut-Off, part of the Low Grade Freight Line between Morrisville and Enola, Pennsylvania. Join me March 14th to learn how historical imagery inspires new works in my ongoing project documenting the former Pennsylvania Railroad and the landscape it travels.  

Stone bridges crossing the Neshaminy Creek, Pennsylvania Railroad Trenton Cut-Off, part of the Low Grade Freight Line between Morrisville and Enola, Pennsylvania. Join me March 14th to learn how historical imagery inspires new works in my ongoing project documenting the former Pennsylvania Railroad and the landscape it travels.  

"In the Packsaddle, On the Conemaugh" Vintage photomechanical reproduction. Images like this were mass produced in travel books to entice travelers to ride the rails or to provide a visual memoir of one's trip. Today these images provide a unique view into the PRR's past taming the wilds of Pennsylvania. 

"In the Packsaddle, On the Conemaugh" Vintage photomechanical reproduction. Images like this were mass produced in travel books to entice travelers to ride the rails or to provide a visual memoir of one's trip. Today these images provide a unique view into the PRR's past taming the wilds of Pennsylvania. 

At the dawn of the industrial revolution, the American railroad became the vehicle at which life’s pace was set. Growing in the east and expanding across the western frontier the railroad was responsible for America’s success. Engineering such a system at such a rapid speed was no small task, the men who ran these companies understood the value of their accomplishments and wanted to share it with the world. To tout their new transportation systems, luring travelers to ride this modern marvel and experience the American landscape railroads turned to another new product of the industrial age: photography. Railroads employed some the most preeminent photographers of the time, outfitting darkroom cars, placed under the direction of senior passenger agents to see that their photographer had the best accommodations to illustrate their pride and joy. 

While photography and the railroads redefined the 19th century’s perception of space and time, surviving imagery leaves us a rich visual legacy to derive tremendous amounts of information about the railway, the landscape and the energy of the industrial age. It’s this imagery that feeds my creativity and imagination, allowing me to visualize the prominent role the Pennsylvania Railroad played in developing the United States.  These volumes of visual assets are the foundation of what inspires my work; the photographer’s technical and aesthetic ability, the conceptual ideas and the resulting images rich with information foster a dialogue with my image making, inspiring new works from pictures of the past.

Please join me Tuesday, March 14th for a lecture exploring the important role historical imagery plays in my ongoing project, From the Mainline, A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The lecture is part of the Harrisburg Chapter’s meeting and is free and open to the public.

March 14th, 2017 | Meeting begins at 7 PM
National Railway Historical Society
Harrisburg Chapter

Hoss’s Steak and Seahouse
743 Wertzville Road
Enola, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia | Lecture Friday, February 17th

Susquehanna River Bridge, Perryville, Maryland. Images like this provide the visual clues of the evolution of the PRR network; the surviving piers of the 1866 Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad bridge spanning the Susquehanna stands adjacent to its replacement completed by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1906. Learn how I draw inspiration from historical imagery to create contemporary images that explore the surviving infrastructure of the PRR while considering its impact on the surrounding landscape. 

Susquehanna River Bridge, Perryville, Maryland. Images like this provide the visual clues of the evolution of the PRR network; the surviving piers of the 1866 Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad bridge spanning the Susquehanna stands adjacent to its replacement completed by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1906. Learn how I draw inspiration from historical imagery to create contemporary images that explore the surviving infrastructure of the PRR while considering its impact on the surrounding landscape. 

Please join me Friday, February 17th at the Philadelphia Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society's monthly meeting conveniently located on Drexel University's main campus. I will be presenting a lecture on my ongoing photographic project, From the Main Line: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The project explores the Pennsylvania Railroad, one of the most celebrated corporations in American history, operating the largest railroad in the United States for over 120 years. The PRR, as it was known, developed a unique high-capacity network that still carries trains throughout the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region. After the merger of the PRR with long-time rival New York Central in 1968, the network has changed considerably, separated by various successors into distinct corridors for both freight and passenger operations. What remains provides the visual clues of the PRR's monumental infrastructure and its contributions to developing the American way of life.

Inspired by the work of William H. Rau, commissioned by the Pennsylvania Road in the 1890’s to document the railroad and its destinations, "From the Main Line" is an exploration of the landscape along the former Pennsylvania Railroad. Examining both the inhabited landscape developed along the line while celebrating the grace of an engineering marvel undertaken over 150 years ago. Through a two-fold approach, photographs look at the context of the railroad in the landscape and also work to emulate the viewpoint of what the passenger might experience from a railcar window. The story of how this railroad influenced the development of United States is told by illustrating the transitioning landscape, uncovering the layers of growth, decline and rebirth of small towns, industrial areas and city terminals that were once served by this historic transportation system.

The lecture is Friday, February 17th, 2017, part of the NRHS Philadelphia Chapter’s monthly meeting. The program is free and open to the public and will begin at 7:30 PM in 121 Randell Hall (accessed though the Main Building), Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. Drexel University's campus is centrally located near 30th Street Station and is easily accessible by bus, rapid transit and regional rail. For more information please contact me directly at Michael@michaelfroio.com. 

Winter News & Events

Northbound waiting room, Pennsylvania Station, Wilmington, Delaware. This remarkable space is part of the 1907 Frank Furness station in the city of Wilmington and is one of two new images included in the Professional Artist members Exhibition. 

Northbound waiting room, Pennsylvania Station, Wilmington, Delaware. This remarkable space is part of the 1907 Frank Furness station in the city of Wilmington and is one of two new images included in the Professional Artist members Exhibition. 

PROFESSIONAL ARTIST MEMBERS EXHIBITION 2017

Opening Reception Tonight: Friday, January 13th, 2016. 5:30 - 7:30 PM

I have two new prints from the Main Line project included in the 2017 Professional Artists Network Exhibition at the Main Line Art Center. The group exhibition features the work of roughly 50 artists and runs from January 13 – February 11, 2017. Gallery Hours are Monday – Thursday: 10 am to 8 pm and Friday – Sunday: 10 am-4 pm. The exhibition is free and open to the public. Mainline Art Center | 746 Panmure Road in Haverford PA


Mainline Art Center | 2017 Meyer Family Award for Contemporary Art Finalist
For the second year in a row The Mainline Art Center of Haverford, Pennsylvania selected the Main Line project as one of seven finalists for the 2017 Meyer Family Award for Contemporary Art. The competition featured over 200 applicants, awarding three solo shows to artists representing a diverse base of mediums while honoring an additional seven finalists with Professional Artist programming throughout 2017. For more information on programs and exhibitions at the Mainline Art Center visit their website


Some new work for the Mainline Project was recently included in Alexander Benjamin Craghead's article for Railroad Heritage, the quarterly journal of the Center for Railroad Photography & Art. Image credits, clockwise from the top left; John Sanderson, Stuart Klipper, John Sanderson and Travis Dewitz.  Reproduction courtesy of the Center for Railroad Photography & Art.

Some new work for the Mainline Project was recently included in Alexander Benjamin Craghead's article for Railroad Heritage, the quarterly journal of the Center for Railroad Photography & Art. Image credits, clockwise from the top left; John Sanderson, Stuart Klipper, John Sanderson and Travis Dewitz. Reproduction courtesy of the Center for Railroad Photography & Art.

The [Rail]Road Belongs in the Landscape | J.B. Jackson and the Photographic Depiction of American Railroads

I am honored to be part of a fantastic article written by Alexander Benjamin Craghead for the Center for Railroad Photography and Art's quarterly journal Railroad Heritage. The article delves into the writings and lectures of landscape studies scholar John Brinckerhoff Jackson, exploring how his work has influenced several generations of noted photographers who's imagery focuses on the railroad landscape. It is a privilege to be featured among several accomplished photographers and peers including Edward Burtynsky, Jeff Brouws, Travis Dewitz and John Sanderson in a thoughtful piece that celebrates work about the railroad but not implicitly the trains themselves. The Center has taken significant initiatives to expand the horizons of both rail enthusiasts, historians and photographers alike while broadening the reach of this genre beyond the average audience. Craghead teaches American Cultural Landscapes at the University of California, Berkeley, a class started by J. B. Jackson many years ago. He'll be presenting more on the subject of Jackson and railroad photography at the Center for Railroad Photography & Art's annual Conference in Lake Forest, IL at the end of April. 


Upcoming Lecture | Philadelphia Chapter, National Railway Historical Society

LANC_CPTR_GRID_Crop.jpg

I’ll be presenting a lecture on my ongoing photographic project, From the Main Line: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad for the Philadelphia Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890’s to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR main line from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. This project combines historical research and original imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most important railroads in American history.

The NRHS was founded in 1935 by a group of rail historians. It has since grown from 40 founding members to include over 13,000 men and women of all ages and professions in every state and many foreign countries, making it the nation’s largest rail preservation and historical society. The Philadelphia Chapter, established in 1936 is one of the founding chapters and has been instrumental in preserving the local railway scene. The lecture, on Friday, February 17th, 2017, is part of the Philadelphia Chapter’s monthly meeting. The program is free and open to the public and will begin at 7:30 PM in 121 Randell Hall, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. More information to follow as the date approaches. 

Of Railroads and Holidays

The 1932 painting "On Time!" by Griff Teller was part of a series of paintings commissioned for the PRR's annual calendar. Reproduced countless times author Dan Cupper wrote in the book "Crossroads of Commerce" that Teller's celebrated painting, "stirs a longing for - and makes a powerful statement about - railroading that melts boundaries of time and geography." This painting was an image used time and time again to illustrate the ability of the Pennsylvania, particularly in the Holiday season. Grif Teller reproduction collection of the Author

The 1932 painting "On Time!" by Griff Teller was part of a series of paintings commissioned for the PRR's annual calendar. Reproduced countless times author Dan Cupper wrote in the book "Crossroads of Commerce" that Teller's celebrated painting, "stirs a longing for - and makes a powerful statement about - railroading that melts boundaries of time and geography." This painting was an image used time and time again to illustrate the ability of the Pennsylvania, particularly in the Holiday season. Grif Teller reproduction collection of the Author

1948 holiday advertisement for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

1948 holiday advertisement for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

For many the railroads have long been associated with the holiday season. The notion of the long journey home to see loved ones or the family tradition of setting up the model trains from generations ago under the tree seems universal. TV and Cinema have celebrated the train countless times during the holiday season, like when Ralphie, his brother, and friends marveled over the window display of Lionel trains in the cult classic, A Christmas Story. Or when the Hollywood production based on Chris Van Allsburg's 1985 book, The Polar Express has the Pere Marquette 1225 take a central role in making the journey to the North Pole.

For over fifty years trains were just as essential to the holiday as the Christmas tree itself. Railroads prided themselves on the herculean effort of moving passengers, mail, and packages to ensure everyone and everything arrived on time for Christmas. Seasonal ads illustrated a concerted effort between Santa Claus and the transportation networks while traveling children slept snug in the berths on the latest streamlined train. Toy trains have been part of the American experience since the turn of the century. Lionel became the gold standard, leading the pack in producing electric powered trains for well over 60 years but some also took preference to the American Flyer and smaller competitors when constructing a holiday layout.

Today trains still play an integral part of the holiday season; at home, families continue the model railroad tradition started generations ago.  On the rails, our mail and packages don't specifically travel in railcars, but the trucks they get loaded into and containers they are shipped by are neatly stacked on the decks of flatcars making up one land ship after another of merchandise, parcels, and gifts heading for a coveted spot under the tree. Like the golden years of the railroads, armies of men and women work around the clock to keep the trains rolling; on the ground, in the cab and remote dispatching centers, often missing time with their loved ones to ensure the trains get through.
 

An eastbound container train descends the Allegheny mountains approaching the famed Horse Shoe Curve near Altoona, Pennsylvania. The contemporary railroad still plays a vital role in transporting the goods to stores and packages to homes around the country. Container ship lines as well as UPS, Fed Ex and trucking companies J.B. Hunt among others rely heavily on the use of the railroad to ensure merchandise makes it to the stores and packages get delivered in time for a spot under the Christmas Tree.

An eastbound container train descends the Allegheny mountains approaching the famed Horse Shoe Curve near Altoona, Pennsylvania. The contemporary railroad still plays a vital role in transporting the goods to stores and packages to homes around the country. Container ship lines as well as UPS, Fed Ex and trucking companies J.B. Hunt among others rely heavily on the use of the railroad to ensure merchandise makes it to the stores and packages get delivered in time for a spot under the Christmas Tree.

Whatever place the railroad has in your holiday season, share it with future generations. Consider expanding upon the trains handed down from family or start a new tradition of visiting a local model railroad, or perhaps take the kids or grandkids for a ride on a holiday themed excursion. While the train has been central to the holidays for many years, today it serves a different role, a diversion from the fast paced electronic lifestyles we indulge in day after day. An excuse to slow down and celebrate family time and traditions over generations. May you all have some time to rest and relax during the holiday season celebrating friends and loved ones!

From my family to yours, Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays and may you all have a safe and healthy New Year!

Sincerely,

Michael Froio

 

Managing the Line: Communications on the A&S

This 1906 view shows the wood frame tower at Quarryville (Milepost 10.8), the first interlocking tower west of Parkesburg. "Q" had control over the two main tracks and four additional sidings to manage helper movements assisting trains to Mars Hill Summit. Additionally four water columns were available to top off steam locomotive tenders on their journey east or west. Image collection of William L. Seigford

This 1906 view shows the wood frame tower at Quarryville (Milepost 10.8), the first interlocking tower west of Parkesburg. "Q" had control over the two main tracks and four additional sidings to manage helper movements assisting trains to Mars Hill Summit. Additionally four water columns were available to top off steam locomotive tenders on their journey east or west. Image collection of William L. Seigford

Running over 53 miles in length the PRR's Atglen & Susquehanna Branch was a shining example of modern railway construction, running across rolling countryside and up the Susquehanna River on a gentle gradient. Fittingly for such a contemporary piece of railroad engineering, another advancement of modern times accompanied the line; the telephone. By the time the A&S opened for business in 1906, the PRR was rapidly working towards constructing one of the world's largest private telephone networks, laying cable along its system for critical functions like dispatching trains in addition to providing an extensive "in-house" communication network. The PRR's interest in telephone technology dates back to 1877 when officials invited Thomas A. Watson, assistant to Alexander Graham Bell for a demonstration in Altoona. While the railroad made a modest investment for non-critical communication following this meeting, it wouldn't be until 1897 when the technology was employed to dispatch trains entirely by phone on the South Fork Branch of the Pittsburgh Division.

The Pennsylvania Railroad maintained standard plans for watch boxes and telephone shelters among countless other items on the property. These structures were common along the Atglen & Susquehanna Branch; At one point there were 11 watch box locations in addition to line side telephones were spaced approximately 1.25 miles to provide direct contact with block operators and dispatchers in the event that a track inspector needed to report a problem with the line. Collection of Pat McKinney, courtesy of  Rob Schoenberg's PRR page

The Pennsylvania Railroad maintained standard plans for watch boxes and telephone shelters among countless other items on the property. These structures were common along the Atglen & Susquehanna Branch; At one point there were 11 watch box locations in addition to line side telephones were spaced approximately 1.25 miles to provide direct contact with block operators and dispatchers in the event that a track inspector needed to report a problem with the line. Collection of Pat McKinney, courtesy of Rob Schoenberg's PRR page

As technology was improved, the PRR began investing heavily in building a communication network, and by 1920 almost the entire system was dispatched by telephone. East of Paoli in the electrified territory, cable was laid in an underground duct system, west of Paoli the cable lines were often above ground on lineside poles and west of Harrisburg an extensive line side open wire system was employed. By 1955 the PRR boasted some impressive statistics in their company magazine, The Pennsy stating, "Today the PRR's network is generally accepted to be the largest private telephone system in the world. Its transmission lines stretch 41,000 miles. It's cost, together with that of the associated Teletype network, totals $35 million. On any typical day, PRR lines carry an estimated half-million calls." 

With the start of operations, the A&S was dispatched by phone from Harrisburg, out on the line local control via eight block stations provided the means for changing tracks and relay orders to passing trains. These included Parkesburg (PG), Atglen (NI), Quarryville (Q), Shenks Ferry - (SF - later Smith), Cresswell (CO), Columbia (LG-42), Marietta (RQ) and Wago Junction (WJ). Additionally, the PRR constructed 11 watch boxes along the A&S that were staffed 24/7 due to the continuous risk of washouts and cave-ins with the numerous cuts, fills, culverts and bridges along the line. Track inspectors could reach dispatchers via the watch boxes or line side phone boxes spaced roughly every 1.25 miles for field access in the event a situation should arise.

L.  Shenks Ferry (Smith) interlocking tower circa 1967. This tower survived the electrification and addition of automatic block signals in 1938 and was employed as needed in the event of a wreck or track work in the area. Photo by William R. Fry, Jr.  R.  LG27, one of 11 watch boxes on the A&S Branch, located just west of the Safe Harbor Viaduct where sharp cliffs and rock cuts posed concerns. These were staffed 24/7 and equipped with the necessary tools, a stove and telephone box for inspectors to conduct their work while staying in constant contact with block operators and dispatchers. Collection of the Southern Lancaster County Historical Society

L. Shenks Ferry (Smith) interlocking tower circa 1967. This tower survived the electrification and addition of automatic block signals in 1938 and was employed as needed in the event of a wreck or track work in the area. Photo by William R. Fry, Jr. R. LG27, one of 11 watch boxes on the A&S Branch, located just west of the Safe Harbor Viaduct where sharp cliffs and rock cuts posed concerns. These were staffed 24/7 and equipped with the necessary tools, a stove and telephone box for inspectors to conduct their work while staying in constant contact with block operators and dispatchers. Collection of the Southern Lancaster County Historical Society

Consolidation of block station and train order offices began during the Depression, with Quarryville placed out of service on August 11th, 1928. More change in operations came with the final phase of electrification completed in 1938. The project, which included the installation of automatic block signals and the implementation of established Current of Traffic Rule 251 eliminating the need for intermediate manned block stations. An additional benefit of the signal system was the integration of slide detector fences in areas prone to rockslides, eliminating the need for staffed watch boxes. Cola tower opened in Columbia sporting a 120 lever centralized traffic control machine, dispatching over 175 miles of freight only territory.  Under its jurisdiction on the A&S were Cresswell, LG-42 and Marietta (Shocks) as well as trackage down the Port Road south to Holtwood. Parkesburg was also rebuilt, relocated to a one of a kind brick single story building, containing a 39-lever Union Switch & Signal Model P interlocking machine. The last block station of note proved to be a bit of mystery, NI at Atglen just a few miles west of Parkesburg closed sometime between 1928 and 1945 based on various employee resources, but at this time I have found little else to narrow the dates of its demise. By the time electrification was complete all but one remaining manned block station survived on the A&S between Parkesburg and Cola; Shenks Ferry (SF), later renamed Smith, was retained as a part-time facility due to its location approximately midway between Cress and Parkesburg. While Smith ultimately met its demise, Cola survived into the Conrail era, closing in March of 1987, followed by the A&S in 1988. On the opposite end of the line, Parkesburg survived well into the 21st Century under Amtrak. The closing of Parkesburg during the Keystone Corridor improvements was the first in a string of tower closures that mark the end of an era in technology and dispatching that lasted longer than the company that helped pioneer the technology.

 

Quarryville | 19th Century Railroading With Big Aspirations

TM Fowler Map circa 1903, illustrating the town of Quarryville. Though construction of the A&S had just commenced in 1903, the line is clearly depicted In the bottom left corner, complete with a connection between the new route and Quarryville Branch that was never constructed. Collection of the Southern Lancaster County Historical Society scanned from Mary Boomsma

TM Fowler Map circa 1903, illustrating the town of Quarryville. Though construction of the A&S had just commenced in 1903, the line is clearly depicted In the bottom left corner, complete with a connection between the new route and Quarryville Branch that was never constructed. Collection of the Southern Lancaster County Historical Society scanned from Mary Boomsma

Quarryville has always been a crossroad of activity in the fertile farmlands of Southern Lancaster County. Farmers purchased lumber, grain, and fertilizer here and reciprocally exchanged their bounties in town and beyond via the local county railroad, a lifeline to the outside world. Commonly known as the Quarryville Branch this rail line had an interesting early history that started with big hopes and ended with financial disaster. The Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Railroad was chartered in 1871 to build a narrow gauge network between Safe Harbor and Reading via Lancaster including a branch to Quarryville, competing directly with the neighboring Reading Company subsidiary the Reading & Columbia.  Before construction commenced it was decided to build the line to standard gauge instead, but the Panic of 1873 quickly stalled progress. Falling into financial distress, the Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Railroad was ironically leased to the Reading Company becoming an extension of its Lancaster Branch, part of the R&C. 

A typical PRR train traversing the former Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Railroad between Lancaster and its southern terminus in Quarryville. Walter G. Minnich Jr. collection

A typical PRR train traversing the former Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Railroad between Lancaster and its southern terminus in Quarryville. Walter G. Minnich Jr. collection

With the contract secured for the branch to Quarryville, the Reading looked to another opportunity, the potential of connecting with the B&O mainline by extending south from Quarryville to Elkton, MD, a move that would involve the financially strapped narrow gauge railroad the Lancaster, Oxford & Southern. When presented the idea of becoming a bridge route, the LO&S optimistically commenced plans to build new extensions on its existing route including a new line to Quarryville, with the intention of everything being converted to standard gauge. Once complete perhaps the small common carrier would see financial success or even be purchased at a profit by the Reading or the B&O. The plan, however, began to crumble when the Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Railroad defaulted on their mortgage, rendering the Reading lease null and void, and the property went up for auction in 1900. At the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, a tense bidding war played out between extended representatives of the B&O, Reading Company and PRR. Charles H. Locher, a Lancaster businessman, minor shareholder of the L&RNGR and friend of the PRR attended the auction, outbidding the competition and thus protecting their coveted territory by eliminating the plan for the competitor's line once and for all. Regardless the LO&S completed the branch to Quarryville but the hopes for financial success or being converted to standard gauge were never realized, the railroad toiled in bankruptcy through 1910 scrapping its Quarryville Branch in 1917 with the rest of the railroad ceasing operation the following year. 

Quarryville Station, view before the Lancaster Oxford & Southern abandonment in 1917. Note the dual gauge trackage in the foreground, an area shared by the LO&S and the PRR. Image Walter G. Minnich Jr. collection, Southern Lancaster County Historical Society

Quarryville Station, view before the Lancaster Oxford & Southern abandonment in 1917. Note the dual gauge trackage in the foreground, an area shared by the LO&S and the PRR. Image Walter G. Minnich Jr. collection, Southern Lancaster County Historical Society

While the drama of railroad barons and hopes of back-road competition unraveled, another chapter in railroad history was playing out in the small town. The PRR commenced construction of the new Low Grade route across Southern Lancaster County. Situated at the approximate center of the eastern segment of the new Atglen & Susquehanna Branch, Quarryville was the epicenter of construction and staging between 1903 and 1906. Despite the building of the new line, it was very evident that the PRR had no intention to tap the small agricultural market with any additional resources other than the branch it maintained from Lancaster. When construction was completed the A&S cut through the Borough on an elevated fill with little more than a water stop, a telephone box and overpasses over its branch and another on Church Street. 

Pennsylvania Railroad track chart showing the grades and curvature of the former Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Quarryville Branch circa 1940. 

Pennsylvania Railroad track chart showing the grades and curvature of the former Lancaster & Reading Narrow Gauge Quarryville Branch circa 1940. 

For the next half a century the railroads continued to operate separately from one another. As the PRR entered its final year's maintenance on marginally performing branches were often deferred, and the Quarryville Branch was certainly no exception. Entering the Penn Central era, with finances already tight, management looked to shed money-losing lines; the Quarryville Branch made the short list when the Penn Central petitioned the ICC for the abandonment of over 138 line segments in 1971. Making matters worse the branch suffered an even greater blow in 1972 when it sustained significant damage from Hurricane Agnes placing most of the branch out of service.  Regardless, the shippers in Quarryville rallied, seeking a deal with Penn Central, who had estimated that a 1700’ line connection to the A&S would come with a price tag of $130,000 a burden the broken railroad could not afford. Shippers agreed to pay the cost of construction, and the PC withdrew 2.26 miles from the ICC petition, saving the most lucrative piece of the branch and rail service to local shippers. Finally, after 67 years of trains flying over the town, Quarryville had a connection to the A&S, but that too would only last another 15 years.  

The Engineer And the Contractor

BY 1903 William H. Brown, the man who earned the nickname the stone man for his preference of masonry bridge construction was winding down a rewarding 44-year career with the Pennsylvania Railroad, 32 of which he served as Chief Engineer. Brown's tenure was part of an era that was arguably one of the most transformative times for the PRR's infrastructure and right of way. His role in the construction of the Low Grade, especially the Atglen & Susquehanna segment would be his last major project before reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70. Brown had come full circle in life having been born and raised in the same rolling countryside of Southern Lancaster County where he'd close out an impressive career.

One of seven cuts and a fill illustrated in this Manor Township view in Southern Lancaster County. Chief Engineer, William, H Brown, saw to it that the ablest contractors were employed to complete this challenging work promptly. The Manor section was contracted to Patricius McManus a very accomplished railroad builder and neighbor of Brown. Harry P. Stoner photograph, Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PHMC

One of seven cuts and a fill illustrated in this Manor Township view in Southern Lancaster County. Chief Engineer, William, H Brown, saw to it that the ablest contractors were employed to complete this challenging work promptly. The Manor section was contracted to Patricius McManus a very accomplished railroad builder and neighbor of Brown. Harry P. Stoner photograph, Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PHMC

Throughout Brown's tenure in the Engineering Department, he relied on skilled contractors to undertake the task of completing a project, among them was arguably one of the most prominent railroad builders of the time, the McManus Construction Company.  By the time construction commenced on the A&S, Patricius McManus, president, and general manager had over 37 years of experience managing railroad construction projects.  McManus started his first project for the Sunbury & Lewistown building 11 miles of track at just 19 years old, developing an impressive portfolio of projects including the double tracking of the Reading's Atlantic City Railroad. The PRR also contracted McManus for the expansion and double tracking of the electrified WJ&S line between Camden and Atlantic City via Newfield as well as various components of the Philadelphia Terminal Division including the terminal trackage for Broad Street Station.  Brown and McManus shared a common thread in their lives and careers, coming from similar social circles, rising from humble roots to the upper echelon of society; they were both self-made success stories. Both Brown and McManus lived in the Powelton Village neighborhood of West Philadelphia, for a time as next-door neighbors, an area regarded as the home of the nouveau riche, outcasts from the old blue-blooded money of railroad executives on the fabled Main Line to Paoli.

This cut excavated on the Manor Township section of the Atglen and Susquehanna illustrates the massive scope of ongoing work. The temporary narrow gauge track used to haul some of the 1.3 million cubic yards of debris is evident in the cut complete with a steam shovel at lower right, one of the key pieces of equipment for such work. Harry P. Stoner photograph, Columbia Historic Preservation Society

This cut excavated on the Manor Township section of the Atglen and Susquehanna illustrates the massive scope of ongoing work. The temporary narrow gauge track used to haul some of the 1.3 million cubic yards of debris is evident in the cut complete with a steam shovel at lower right, one of the key pieces of equipment for such work. Harry P. Stoner photograph, Columbia Historic Preservation Society

L. Patricius McManus, Railroad Contractor. R. William H. Brown, Chief Engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

L. Patricius McManus, Railroad Contractor. R. William H. Brown, Chief Engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

When Brown parceled out eight contracts for grading and excavating the A&S in 1903, the engineering department knew that no section would be particularly easy. While some places required less significant work than others the line through Providence Township would be an imposing endeavor requiring the railroad to carve a path through the rolling hills since the local topography offered none. Brown charged McManus to execute this segment; Working west from Quarryville, equipment was brought in on an existing branch line via Lancaster and distributed by temporary trackage, moving in construction materials and supplies. Blasting and steam shovels did the grunt work of digging cuts through the hills, some up to 90' deep. McManus's crew of 300 men excavated some 1.3 million cubic yards of rock and earth creating seven cuts and a massive fill in the roughly 8 miles of line through the Township alone.

Brown closed out his storied career on March 1st, 1906 just shy of the dedication of the A&S on July 27th, but McManus's company would soon be involved with the construction of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Cut-Off between Park Summit and Milford, Pennsylvania another remarkable accomplishment of railroad engineering. Though Brown's Low Grade is abandoned now, so many other projects he and McManus worked on together remain a vital part of rail operations for the successors of the Pennsylvania Railroad, a testament to the     
formidable team of Engineer and Contractor. 

Fall News and Events

Well its fall, the weather is cooling off, the light is getting nice and its time to get back to work! I have a lot of good stuff in store for next couple of months including a big update of work on my website, a lecture for the Delaware Valley Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society and an article feature on the blog The Trackside Photographer, a platform that explores the larger idea of understanding the historic nature of the railroad landscape. Additionally I have a lot of great material in the cue for the blog Photographs & History, rounding out the exploration of the former Pennsylvania Railroad Atglen & Susquehanna Branch and continuing east exploring the mainline into Chester County, Pennsylvania. 


View of Peter’s Mountain from Sherman’s Creek, Duncannon, Pennsylvania

View of Peter’s Mountain from Sherman’s Creek, Duncannon, Pennsylvania

Feature Article | The Trackside Photographer
A new article on the Main Line project goes live Thursday, October 13th on the blog The Trackside Photographer, a wonderful online publication that features photographers who's focus is documenting the ever changing railroad landscape.  The article provides insight on my creative process while working on the Main Line project and is complemented by a cohesive gallery of imagery from the project. 

Continuing a Legacy | Photographing the Pennsylvania Railroad

I am honored to once again present for the Delaware Valley Chapter of the NRHS. My lecture will explore the legacy of photographic imagery undertaken by the Pennsylvania Railroad and how it has influenced my own work. The presentation looks at several noted photographers commissioned to photograph the railroad while tying them to a visual dialogue with my own contemporary works exploring the former Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Delaware Valley Chapter, National Railway Historical Society | Friday, October 21st, 2016 | Lecture begins at approximately 8:30PM
Morrisville Public Library, 300 North Pennsylvania Avenue, Morrisville, Pennsylvania

New Work from the Main Line Project

The image above is one of many that is being readied for a big update of new work on the Main Line project. The update will include a new gallery of imagery which includes additional views from PRR divisions already represented as well locations on the New York and Maryland Divisions which were not previously represented in the project. Once live a series of singe image posts will begin in addition to the regular format to highlight the new work and the significance of these places in the history of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

End of an Era

One of the last remaining Amtrak AEM-7s heads north with a regional train through Holmesburg Junction in Northeast Philadelphia shortly before retirement in February of 2016. Photograph by Patrick Yough

One of the last remaining Amtrak AEM-7s heads north with a regional train through Holmesburg Junction in Northeast Philadelphia shortly before retirement in February of 2016. Photograph by Patrick Yough

Class GG1 electric locomotive number 4868 pulls The Congressional circa 1965. Amtrak's AEM-7 was the successor of the highly regarded GG-1 both of which had successful careers on the Northeast Corridor, only time will tell if the Siemens ACS-64 will prove to be a worthy replacement.

Class GG1 electric locomotive number 4868 pulls The Congressional circa 1965. Amtrak's AEM-7 was the successor of the highly regarded GG-1 both of which had successful careers on the Northeast Corridor, only time will tell if the Siemens ACS-64 will prove to be a worthy replacement.

While I don’t typically write about motive power and rolling stock on the railroad, this week, with much fanfare a workhorse of Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor will go to the stables for the last time. The venerable Amtrak AEM-7 locomotive fleet built by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors has been the common face of regional and long distance trains up and down the Corridor for over 37 years, logging over 220 million miles in the process. Developed after testing Swedish and French electric locomotives in the 1970’s the units were designed after the successful Swedish class Rc4. Ultimately the AEM-7 fleet would replace Amtrak’s hand-me-down fleet of 30 class GG-1 electrics of Pennsylvania Railroad/Raymond Loewy fame after the purchase of General Electric E60’s failed to deliver in the mid-70’s. Utilizing electrical components supplied from Swedish company ASEA and shells constructed by the Budd Company in Philadelphia, EMD manufactured 54 of the units for Amtrak in three separate orders; 1977 (30 units), 1980 (17 units) and 1988 (7 units). Maryland Area Regional Commuter Service (MARC) and Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Septa) also made subsequent orders while New Jersey Transit purchased a fleet of its successor, the ALP-44. The boxy double-ended 7000hp motors (PRR term for electric locomotives) were considered lightweight, weighing just 101 tons and were capable of a maximum speed of 125mph

Over the years they have affectionately received the nickname Swedish Meatball or Toasters because of their origin and size and were widely regarded as a success, being the second long-standing fleet of electric locomotives to ply the former PRR territory since the GG-1. The AEM-7s have been replaced by Amtrak’s new fleet of 70 Siemens built ACS-64 class motors, based on the successful EuroSprinter platform. Only time will tell if the Sprinters prove to be a match to the durability of the Meatball or the holy grail, the GG-1. While the last AEM-7 on Amtrak’s roster is dropped, several remain in service for Septa and MARC but on short time; Septa has placed an order for 13 new ACS-64 units and MARC will drop all electric powered service all together, converting all Penn Line trains to diesel with new Siemens Charger series locomotives. While it can always be argued that the lines and styling of the GG-1 coupled with its battleship like design will never be replicated the AEM-7’s durability has certainly made it a worthy successor in hauling passengers safely up and down the Northeast Corridor for almost 38 years. 

Johnstown: Remembering the Great Flood of 1889

On May 30th, 1889 storms struck the Conemaugh Valley in Cambria County, dumping an estimated 6-10 inches of rain on the region. Tributaries and creeks flooded their banks, swelling the Conemaugh River with raging currents and miscellaneous debris. Fourteen miles east of the bustling city of Johnstown concerns were escalating at the elite South Fork Fishing & Hunting Club where a former reservoir for the Mainline of Public Works turned recreational lake, began to rise to dangerous levels. Lake Conemaugh had been stripped of its fail-safes after the Pubic Works system was abandoned and had no way of relieving the rising floodwaters. Various efforts to mitigate the high water were considered but were too little, too late, in a last ditch effort messengers were dispatched to South Fork to report the dangerous situation to neighboring towns via telegraph.

"The Johnstown Calamity" by George Baker depicts the devastation of the great flood, note homes tossed on their side as the waters recede leaving nothing but mud in an area that was once a residential neighborhood. Image collection of the New York Public Library.

"The Johnstown Calamity" by George Baker depicts the devastation of the great flood, note homes tossed on their side as the waters recede leaving nothing but mud in an area that was once a residential neighborhood. Image collection of the New York Public Library.

By the afternoon of May 31st, Johnstown was already experiencing flooding in various areas but at approximately 3:10PM the situation grew far beyond what anyone could have ever imagined. The dam holding back Lake Conemaugh collapsed, releasing some 20 million tons of water into the Conemaugh River valley. Taking approximately 40 minutes to drain the lake, flood waters raged through the valley taking less than an hour to reach the city of Johnstown, picking up houses, trees and even a railroad viaduct in its course. By the time it hit Johnstown the wall of floodwater was estimated to be 60’ high in places and traveling at 40 miles per hour.  The flood entered town in the areas of East Conemaugh and Woodvale leveling rail yards, tossing passenger trains and causing major damage to the Gautier Iron Works, picking up even more debris including barbed wire manufactured at the mills. Flood waters tore through the center of Johnstown which is hemmed in by the Stoney Creek and Conemaugh Rivers on the the valley floor becoming the epicenter of disaster. Spreading across the city the floodwaters washed back and forth forcing debris against the PRR stone viaduct near the Cambria Iron Works creating further peril during the situation. The unintended dam became engulfed in flames creating a 70’ high wall that had to eventually be blasted away after waters receded.

The great stone bridge on the Pennsylvania Railroad's main line played a large role in the devastation during the flood when debris washed across the valley piling up against the bridge creating an unintended dam, trapping flood victims in a 70' high debris pile that burned for three days. After the fire and flood water subsided clearing of the bridge required the expertise of "Dynamite Bill" Flynn and a 900 man crewtaking 3 months to complete the task. Photograph by Ernest Walter Histed, collection of the Library of Congress.

The great stone bridge on the Pennsylvania Railroad's main line played a large role in the devastation during the flood when debris washed across the valley piling up against the bridge creating an unintended dam, trapping flood victims in a 70' high debris pile that burned for three days. After the fire and flood water subsided clearing of the bridge required the expertise of "Dynamite Bill" Flynn and a 900 man crewtaking 3 months to complete the task. Photograph by Ernest Walter Histed, collection of the Library of Congress.

Efforts were mobilized immediately to provide disaster relief and recovery. The Pennsylvania Railroad restored the railroad west to Pittsburgh and was running trains by June 2nd bringing in manpower and supplies. Clara Barton, a nurse and founder of the Red Cross arrived on June 5th, staying for more than five months to lead the group’s first major disaster relief effort. The flood, the result of the of the South Fork Hunting Club’s negligence to properly maintain the earthen dam ultimately took 2,209 lives, 16,000 homes and cost $17 million in property damage, making the Great Flood of 1889 one of the worst floods to hit the US in the 19th Century.

The Cost of Labor | Constructing the A&S

Today when you walk along the path of the former Atglen & Susquehanna Low Grade it is a very peaceful experience. There’s no shortage of lush foliage shrouding rock cuts blasted out of the rolling hills, the elevated fills and stone masonry look they were there since the beginning of time, and the railroad itself is long gone. Today it is hard to fathom the purpose of such a resource and even more difficult to imagine the human struggle that was involved in creating such a line.

Workers pause for a photograph, likely made by Lancaster based photographer Harry P. Stoner who was commissioned to document the construction of A&S. Blasting, the high cliffs and large loose rock along the stretch in Manor Township presented many hazards to the men while constructing the final few miles of the A&S along the Susquehanna River. Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC

Workers pause for a photograph, likely made by Lancaster based photographer Harry P. Stoner who was commissioned to document the construction of A&S. Blasting, the high cliffs and large loose rock along the stretch in Manor Township presented many hazards to the men while constructing the final few miles of the A&S along the Susquehanna River. Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC

Early in the era when railroads engaged in a wave of line and capacity improvements across the country, construction of the A&S commenced in 1903. Its scope was compared to that of the Panama Canal, which began around the same time, but took three times longer to complete.  In the course of three years the PRR spent $19.5 million to build an engineering marvel that completed the final piece of a freight by-pass collectively referred to as the Low Grade between Morrisville and Enola, Pennsylvania. With curvature limited to no more than 2% and the maximum grade held to 1% or lower the high cost of building such a line was justified with improved operating ratios and a reduction in fuel and crew demands while providing additional capacity to move freight trains away from the congested main line. With no grade crossings, local industry or stations the A&S was strictly a conduit to move freight to and from the New York and Philadelphia markets across southern Lancaster County to the west via Enola. The premise of the Low Grade is pretty simple until you consider the topography the line spanned; In order to maintain such gradients the PRR had to wage war against the landscape employing thousands of men to construct the line between Parkesburg and the Susquehanna River. The western highlands and the descent into the Susquehanna valley was perhaps the most difficult aspect of the project. It entailed erecting a massive bridge at Safe Harbor to span the Conestoga gap and carving a path high above the river that continued down to Creswell where the line joined the Columbia & Port Deposit Branch. Other notable challenges included the spanning of the Pequea Valley at Martic Forge and the 90-foot deep cut excavated out of solid rock near Quarryville.

An excavation crew pauses with a rail mounted steam shovel that appears to be down for repairs. Steam shovels and air powered drills were initially utilized to excavate the right of way in Manor township as well as the deep cuts along the line to the east. Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC

An excavation crew pauses with a rail mounted steam shovel that appears to be down for repairs. Steam shovels and air powered drills were initially utilized to excavate the right of way in Manor township as well as the deep cuts along the line to the east. Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC

According to the late Ernest Schuleen who managed the Safe Harbor Water Power Corp, "The major portion of the laborers were immigrants from Italy, Turkey, Syria and the other southeastern European countries, who were taken directly from incoming boats to do the job... Getting the job done was the thing; safety was secondary.'' Roughly 1000 men and 150 horses were deployed along the bluffs of the Susquehanna and hundreds more worked east and west from Quarryville. Obstacles were met with steam shovels and drills, finishing work executed with pick axes and shovels. Dynamite was a necessary tool to complete the work in a timely manner but its nature made the job that much more hazardous, premature explosions killed some, flying debris others. In the course of three years over 200 died while working to complete the A&S. On a weekly basis headlines pitched tragic stories of workers killed on the job with hardly a mention of who they were. One of the most tragic incidents occurred near Colemanville, the location of a dynamite factory employing local residents to produce materials for the PRR and more recently the construction of the nearby Holtwood Dam. On June 6th, 1906, just weeks before the public dedication of the A&S, a blast ripped through the stamping house containing 2400 pounds of dynamite, triggering a subsequent explosion of nitroglycerin, the disaster killing eleven men. The only identified remains was the arm of 25-year-old Frederick Rice, the rest, all in their late teens or early 20’s were laid to rest in a single common casket. Despite the fact that the plant was no longer producing dynamite for the PRR’s A&S project the railroad faced continued criticism for their lack of concern for their seemingly disposable immigrant work force which ultimately brought such tragedy to southern Lancaster County. 

One of the deep cuts near Quarryville takes shape as crews blast and dig their way through solid rock to maintain the 1% maximum ruling grade on the A&S branch. Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC

One of the deep cuts near Quarryville takes shape as crews blast and dig their way through solid rock to maintain the 1% maximum ruling grade on the A&S branch. Kline Collection, Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, PMHC

Regardless the project continued and on July 27th of the same year the PRR publicly dedicated the A&S line in the deep cut near Quarryville, where prominent Quarryville citizen George Hensel drove the final spike made of silver. Sadly the human tragedy and loss of life behind the construction of the A&S was the norm rather than the exception. Labor laws and unions had yet to gain a foothold and agencies like OSHA and the FRA had yet to exist. The Industrial Revolution was still very much a time where money ruled and the bottom line far outweighed the value of human life. The human story of the A&S was a dark reality repeated time and time again to build some the most important engineering accomplishments and transportation networks in the country.

40 Years | A Brief History of Conrail

Two Conrail trains part ways at iconic Horseshoe Curve west of Altoona, Pennsylvania on the former Pennsylvania Railroad main line over the Alleghenies, October 21, 1988. Image courtesy of  Mike Danneman

Two Conrail trains part ways at iconic Horseshoe Curve west of Altoona, Pennsylvania on the former Pennsylvania Railroad main line over the Alleghenies, October 21, 1988. Image courtesy of Mike Danneman

At the close of the 1960’s railroads of the Northeast struggled with mounting debts, declining traffic and deferred maintenance. Coal, once the railroads mainstay traffic source, took a nosedive as the nation’s appetite for oil increased, triggering financial panic among many rail carriers in the Mid-Atlantic. The Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central, once bitter rivals, merged into the Penn Central creating perhaps the most infamous face for the ensuing financial disaster seven major carriers faced in the early 1970’s. In order to avoid the complete collapse of railroading in the east, congress enacted the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1974 (commonly referred to the 3R Act). The Act provided interim funding for the struggling carriers while creating Consolidated Rail Corporation, a government funded private company. Under the Act the United States Railway Association prepared a plan to determine what lines of the seven carriers would be incorporated in the final system plan to be transferred to Conrail. This plan would be approved by congress under the subsequent Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (4R Act) which was signed into law in February of 1976.

The original Conrail system map circa April 1st, 1976. Note the absence of the iconic Conrail logo. Collection of the Multimodalways Project

The original Conrail system map circa April 1st, 1976. Note the absence of the iconic Conrail logo. Collection of the Multimodalways Project

Conrail was incorporated in Pennsylvania the same month and began operations April 1st 1976. The company’s function was to revitalize freight service between the Northeast and Midwest, operating as a for-profit operation. In 1981 Conrail’s economic standings began to turn around showing its first profit since incorporation. Under the leadership of L. Stanley Crane, a former Southern Railway CEO, the railroad flourished, shedding an additional 4100 unprofitable and redundant miles from the system between 1981 and 1983. The Staggers Rail Act of 1981 also provided much needed deregulation of railroad rates and tariffs allowing for changes in rate structuring that dated back to the turn of the century, giving railroads the ability to better compete with trucking companies. By the time Conrail approached its 10th birthday the railroad was ready to return back to the private sector. In the fall of 1986 congress signed in the Conrail Privatization Act authorizing a public stock offering that resulted in one of the largest IPOs in US history raising $1.9 billion in 1987.

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   Tony Palladino worked for design firm Siegel & Gale when he developed the iconic Conrail logo and identity, shown here in a lettering diagram. Collection of the Milton Glaser Design Study Center and Archives. 

Tony Palladino worked for design firm Siegel & Gale when he developed the iconic Conrail logo and identity, shown here in a lettering diagram. Collection of the Milton Glaser Design Study Center and Archives. 

Conrail’s ubiquitous blue locomotives and “can opener" logo developed by designer Tony Palladino became the symbol of a profitable network, a success story for a new era of railroading which also saw the creation of Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation. Ironically in the 1990’s NS and CSX engaged in a takeover battle that would have created an unhealthy imbalance in northeastern rail service, the compromise was instead a split of the Conrail system. CSX would take 42% of Conrail’s assets and the former NYC properties with NS assuming the 58% balance and much of the PRR network. Interestingly enough, the final split of Conrail is similar to a merger proposal from the 1950’s in response to the proposed marriage of the New York Central and Chesapeake & Ohio. The PRR had looked to join forces with the N&W and Wabash, both of which it already had a controlling interest in. Regardless, the ICC rejected both mergers but the net result some fifty years later is the same. Outside of the major split of Conrail assets three terminals where competition was in jeopardy continues to be serviced by the jointly owned Conrail Shared Assets Operation, providing equal access for both railroads in Detroit, Northern and Southern New Jersey/ Philadelphia continuing the Conrail name that began operations 40 years ago today.