Photographs & History

Photographs and History

End of an Era

One of the last remaining Amtrak AEM-7s heads north with a regional train through Holmesburg Junction in Northeast Philadelphia shortly before retirement in February of 2016. Photograph by Patrick Yough

One of the last remaining Amtrak AEM-7s heads north with a regional train through Holmesburg Junction in Northeast Philadelphia shortly before retirement in February of 2016. Photograph by Patrick Yough

Class GG1 electric locomotive number 4868 pulls The Congressional circa 1965. Amtrak's AEM-7 was the successor of the highly regarded GG-1 both of which had successful careers on the Northeast Corridor, only time will tell if the Siemens ACS-64 will prove to be a worthy replacement.

Class GG1 electric locomotive number 4868 pulls The Congressional circa 1965. Amtrak's AEM-7 was the successor of the highly regarded GG-1 both of which had successful careers on the Northeast Corridor, only time will tell if the Siemens ACS-64 will prove to be a worthy replacement.

While I don’t typically write about motive power and rolling stock on the railroad, this week, with much fanfare a workhorse of Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor will go to the stables for the last time. The venerable Amtrak AEM-7 locomotive fleet built by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors has been the common face of regional and long distance trains up and down the Corridor for over 37 years, logging over 220 million miles in the process. Developed after testing Swedish and French electric locomotives in the 1970’s the units were designed after the successful Swedish class Rc4. Ultimately the AEM-7 fleet would replace Amtrak’s hand-me-down fleet of 30 class GG-1 electrics of Pennsylvania Railroad/Raymond Loewy fame after the purchase of General Electric E60’s failed to deliver in the mid-70’s. Utilizing electrical components supplied from Swedish company ASEA and shells constructed by the Budd Company in Philadelphia, EMD manufactured 54 of the units for Amtrak in three separate orders; 1977 (30 units), 1980 (17 units) and 1988 (7 units). Maryland Area Regional Commuter Service (MARC) and Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Septa) also made subsequent orders while New Jersey Transit purchased a fleet of its successor, the ALP-44. The boxy double-ended 7000hp motors (PRR term for electric locomotives) were considered lightweight, weighing just 101 tons and were capable of a maximum speed of 125mph

Over the years they have affectionately received the nickname Swedish Meatball or Toasters because of their origin and size and were widely regarded as a success, being the second long-standing fleet of electric locomotives to ply the former PRR territory since the GG-1. The AEM-7s have been replaced by Amtrak’s new fleet of 70 Siemens built ACS-64 class motors, based on the successful EuroSprinter platform. Only time will tell if the Sprinters prove to be a match to the durability of the Meatball or the holy grail, the GG-1. While the last AEM-7 on Amtrak’s roster is dropped, several remain in service for Septa and MARC but on short time; Septa has placed an order for 13 new ACS-64 units and MARC will drop all electric powered service all together, converting all Penn Line trains to diesel with new Siemens Charger series locomotives. While it can always be argued that the lines and styling of the GG-1 coupled with its battleship like design will never be replicated the AEM-7’s durability has certainly made it a worthy successor in hauling passengers safely up and down the Northeast Corridor for almost 38 years. 

Pennsylvania Railroad Electrification

Yesterday, February 10th marked the 78th anniversary of regularly scheduled electric powered passenger trains running between New York City and Wahshington DC, a result of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s effort to electrify the main line system throughout the congested Northeast region.

Formerly known as Germantown Junction, North Philadelphia marked where the 1918 electrification of the Chestnut Hill Branch diverged from the main line to head north into the suburbs. This junction today sees Septa trains diverging on the same route while handling the north - south traffic of the Northeast Corridor. Note the massive signal bridge which originally spanned up to 8 tracks, and the early lattice style catenary pole in the foreground.

Formerly known as Germantown Junction, North Philadelphia marked where the 1918 electrification of the Chestnut Hill Branch diverged from the main line to head north into the suburbs. This junction today sees Septa trains diverging on the same route while handling the north - south traffic of the Northeast Corridor. Note the massive signal bridge which originally spanned up to 8 tracks, and the early lattice style catenary pole in the foreground.

The Pennsylvania Railroad’s electrification projects date back as early as 1895 when the railroad used the Burlington and Mt. Holly Railroad as a test subject for a 7 mile 500 volt DC trolley system. The experiment lasted just six years when the Mt Holly powerhouse caught fire. In 1906 southern New Jersey subsidiary West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, built a third rail 600 volt DC system from Camden to Millville and Atlantic City via Newfield. Like an interurban or trolley system the line utilized overhead wire in congested areas like Camden but also had several installations in the countryside, as way to test the durability of trolley wire versus third rail at higher speeds. The same year the PRR installed yet another 600 volt DC system on a short Cumberland Valley Railroad branch running 7.7 miles from Mechanicsburg and Dillsburg all predecessors to the first large scale use of this technology on the railroad. In 1910, the PRR would construct a similar 650-volt DC system to operate the newly opened New York Terminal. Running from Manhattan Transfer near Harrison, New Jersey east to the beautiful Penn Station and ultimately to the sprawling Sunnyside Yard in Queens.

Map detailing the Pennsylvania Railroad's electrified territory circa 1947. Collection of    Rails and Trails .

Map detailing the Pennsylvania Railroad's electrified territory circa 1947. Collection of Rails and Trails.

Soon after the benefits of electric traction were realize in the New York Terminal, attention was focused on the Philadelphia area to relieve congestion, in particular operations radiating from the stub-end Broad Street Station complex. After considerable research the railroad adopted the use of high voltage alternating current for this and all future projects like that of its northern neighbor the New Haven who began use of this technology as early as 1907. Initial electrification included the district between Broad Street and Paoli on the Main Line, which was completed in 1915, followed by the Chestnut Hill Branch in 1918, and the White Marsh Branch in 1924.

PRR Document ET 1 Circa 1935. This document highlights a number of important specifications and layout of the newly completed electrified system, including catenary cable design, substation locations, insulator types and the completion dates of each segment among other items.  Collection of PRR.Railfan.net

PRR Document ET 1 Circa 1935. This document highlights a number of important specifications and layout of the newly completed electrified system, including catenary cable design, substation locations, insulator types and the completion dates of each segment among other items. Collection of PRR.Railfan.net

Expansion continued south to Wilmington on the main line including the branch to West Chester in 1928 and north on the main line to Trenton and the Schuylkill Valley Branch to Norristown in 1930 thus completing the electrification of Philadelphia region suburban lines. Subsequent studies indicated an economical advantage of electrification outside the commuter zones for regional and long distance trains between New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC and Harrisburg, prompting Pennsylvania Railroad President William Wallace Atterbury to close the gaps in electrification beginning late in 1928. Despite the Great Depression the electrification project continued through 1933, completing the retrofit of the New York Terminal for AC traction and finishing catenary work to complete the network to Wilmington and Paoli.

The PRR electrified network still serves the modern needs of Amtrak, providing propulsion for Acela, regional and local passenger rail service through out the Northeast. At Shore, on the Northeast Corridor a southbound passes as another northbound region approaches. Note the catenary above the void in front of the camera, this is where the line to Delair diverges and used to have multiple tracks, all electrified into Pavonia Yard in Camden.

The PRR electrified network still serves the modern needs of Amtrak, providing propulsion for Acela, regional and local passenger rail service through out the Northeast. At Shore, on the Northeast Corridor a southbound passes as another northbound region approaches. Note the catenary above the void in front of the camera, this is where the line to Delair diverges and used to have multiple tracks, all electrified into Pavonia Yard in Camden.

Understanding that Wilmington would not be a suitable southern terminal for electrification, catenary was extended to Washington DC including Potomac Yard, financed by a 70 million dollar loan secured from depression era federal recovery programs. Beginning in January of 1934, various reports say up to 20,000 men went to work, comprising of furloughed railroad employees and new hires in the electrical / construction trades to complete the electrification of the New York – Washington DC main line, which opened for business on February 10th 1935.

As a result of the success on the north south “corridor” the PRR sought to complete electrification from the eastern seaboard west to the Harrisburg terminal including all associated freight and passenger main lines. Work commenced on the Low Grade from Morrisville to Enola, the main line from Paoli to Harrisburg and the on the Columbia Branch and Columbia & Port Deposit. Completed in 1938 the entire electrification created a powerful conduit that put the railroad in an excellent position to handle the impending pressure of war time traffic demands.

The Harrisburg power Dispatchers office, which was slated to close the beginning of this month controlled the electrical supply network for both signal and catenary systems. This massive installation is an engineering marvel by itself, an impressive monitor and control system consisting of hundreds of push button breakers and miles of wiring. Though this facility remained in service, the actual console was taken off line and replaced by computers which were located out of view.

The Harrisburg power Dispatchers office, which was slated to close the beginning of this month controlled the electrical supply network for both signal and catenary systems. This massive installation is an engineering marvel by itself, an impressive monitor and control system consisting of hundreds of push button breakers and miles of wiring. Though this facility remained in service, the actual console was taken off line and replaced by computers which were located out of view.

The electrified infrastructure has remained visibly the same over the ensuing decades, surviving the Pennsylvania Railroad, Penn Central, Conrail and Amtrak. Though Conrail abandoned the electrified freight service in the 1980's Amtrak continues to maintain and modify where needed the original fixed tension catenary system. With the implementation of CTEC, its centralized traffic and electrical dispatching center, the company has slowly decommissioned all the former PRR power dispatching facilities in favor of new computerized systems. Today, when you ride the Northeast Corridor, look at the details amongst this great infrastructure, they reveal the various phases of construction and symbolize the ingenuity and engineering ability of the great Pennsylvania Railroad.

Making the Shot

Last year I commenced work photographing the Eastern End of the former PRR from Harrisburg to Philadelphia, and the current "Northeast Corridor" from New York to Washington DC with the incredible cooperation of Amtrak and Historic Architect John Bowie Associates. This project presented a number of new opportunities and experiences for me, and some adjustments too! Though Norfolk Southern freight traffic was heavy on the western mainline from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh the line is fairly accessible by public roads, overpasses, and hiking trails. The electrified territory however represents a number of challenges that were not a consideration further west. For one: high speed electrified trains, two: limited access/ visibility because of electric traction (catenary) systems and a mainline that is largely grade separated, three: many in tact and operating PRR facilities that have been re-purposed or are still used to manage traffic flow along the line. While later is very exciting the first two are a little nerve wracking until you are put in the good hands of Amtrak's safety crews.

Safety training and planning for this project started early on, visiting various sites requires commitments from Amtrak officials to ensure that everyone on-site its educated on what to expect and that there is a chain of command to ensure all parties are not at risk while working on, or near the tracks. Having said this, I want to be clear to anyone who reads this: This work is done with permission utilizing proper safety precautions, and while I make an effort not to include people in the images here on the blog, they are there, keeping an eye out for me while I am working!  I do not in any way support trespassing on private property, especially when moving equipment can put you or other individuals at risk!

View looking East from #2 Track. Note the historic 1929 train station complex and Cork interlocking tower (right - just past bridge). This line has recently seen upgrading including new track and signal systems as far as Harrisburg for Amtrak's Keystone Service and daily Pennsylvanian to Pittsburgh.

View looking East from #2 Track. Note the historic 1929 train station complex and Cork interlocking tower (right - just past bridge). This line has recently seen upgrading including new track and signal systems as far as Harrisburg for Amtrak's Keystone Service and daily Pennsylvanian to Pittsburgh.

Lancaster

Having said that I wanted to provide and great example of an image that was made in the last few weeks at the Lancaster, Pennsylvania station area. The large black and white image is the image I made using my standard camera of choice, a 5x7 view camera, this camera requires patience and concentration in addition to a strong back to lug it around, particularly on this 90+ degree day!

The inset image, taken by Cassidy Hobbs, a Drexel Student and architecture intern with Amtrak, shows (from left to right), the watchman, myself (setting up the shot), and the safety foreman. This shot was made  across the main tracks on the West End of the station complex. This set up is typical when within 15' of the track area, and without this protection you are trespassing! While I look forward to sharing more imagery on this part of the project, I will remind my viewers about safety, since its a big concern for all of us on this project!