Photographs & History

Photographs and History

(Railroad) Photography with a View Camera

Every time I step foot out in the field to photograph I am fully prepared to handle a barrage of questions pertaining to my camera of choice, mainly because in this day and age its… well almost completely obsolete. I have for over 15 years had a love/ hate relationship with the view camera. A cumbersome, slow, maybe even archaic box like design. The basic principal and design of a view camera derives from the camera obscura a device used by artists and scientists alike through out early history, and ultimately the basis of early camera designs.

An example of a large format negative from a 5x7 view camera. When properly exposed and developed the negative produce a wide dynamic range in a single negative which can be either scanned or printed traditionally in the darkroom. (Below Left) View Camera film is cut into sheets and loaded into holders like this allowing for two exposures, one on each side. (Bottom Right) My camera of choice is a 5x7 wood field camera, a compact and precise design that affords the benefits of large format without the bulk of a rail design camera. Cassandra, Pennsylvania 

An example of a large format negative from a 5x7 view camera. When properly exposed and developed the negative produce a wide dynamic range in a single negative which can be either scanned or printed traditionally in the darkroom. (Below Left) View Camera film is cut into sheets and loaded into holders like this allowing for two exposures, one on each side. (Bottom Right) My camera of choice is a 5x7 wood field camera, a compact and precise design that affords the benefits of large format without the bulk of a rail design camera. Cassandra, Pennsylvania 

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Why use film and a View Camera? In the days of digital capture and Photoshop this is a very valid question. My mind is a process oriented one, I am fascinated by things that require a balance between artistry and technical proficiency, activities like cooking, beer making, and of course photography. Akin to a craft like woodworking, photographers have various tools available and over time you develop a preference to which tool you work with. The view camera for me is a technical tool that provides an interactive experience where you are fully and physically involved in the picture making process.

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I exaggerated in describing the view camera as a primitive box, perhaps some people use it that way, but in reality the view camera is a complex device that allows an incredible amount of control in the picture making process. Constructed with two standards – front and rear they are connected by a light tight bellows creating a highly flexible camera body that is capable of use in most genres of photography. These standards operate independent of one another; the front providing the mount for lenses that are on rigid boards allowing for quick changing, the rear has a frosted ground glass the image is projected on which allows the photographer to compose and focus the camera. One of the most common comments I get when one looks through the camera is that image on the ground glass is “upside and backwards” this is because of the lack of reflex mirrors we are accustomed to in SLR type camera designs, its something you get used to, I don’t even notice it anymore until someone else points it out.

The standards move on multiple axes including rise, fall, shift, tilt and swing which allow the user to manipulate shape and focus of the object you are photographing and areessential to perspective control, one of the primary reasons I prefer this camera. Through use of the various movements the vertical and horizontal axis of the lens and film can be brought parallel to the subject eliminating convergence, keeping the subject straight in the resultant photo. In addition to this, one can also manipulate the plane of critical focus attaining sharpness and depth of field a standard fixed lens camera would have difficulty doing in certain situations.

Another benefit is the resultant negative. Though several view cameras are still produced to work with expensive digital capture backs, a properly exposed and developed piece of film, especially black and white which affords full processing control, will yield all the information you need whether you print in the darkroom or scan and print digitally (which I prefer).  This is perhaps the biggest barrier to entry for new view camera users: Its expensive, slow and takes lot of patience (plus a few errors) to really learn how to utilize film intuitively, but once you become proficient there are limitless possibilities.

I choose to work with this slow meditative process because it works for my focus on the landscape, architecture, and infrastructure but not necessarily moving trains (only on a few occasions under the right conditions) and it satisfies my need for a technical and interactive experience. Over the years I have come to prefer using a ‘compact’ wood field camera, it produces 5x7” negatives and is also equipped with a reducing back to shoot 4x5" as well. On occasion I will use an 8x10” field camera though lately while working on the railroad it sees a lot less use because of accessibility to locations and the bulk/ weight of the camera and film holders.

I am not the only one either; there is a list of others that utilize the large format camera to document the railroads, some taking the approach of focusing on the environment or people. Others have pushed the limits of what a large format camera can be used for in this genre. Over the next few months we will explore several different photographer’s work to understand why the large format camera was essential to their creative process and contribution to this unique genre in photography.

Making the Shot

Last year I commenced work photographing the Eastern End of the former PRR from Harrisburg to Philadelphia, and the current "Northeast Corridor" from New York to Washington DC with the incredible cooperation of Amtrak and Historic Architect John Bowie Associates. This project presented a number of new opportunities and experiences for me, and some adjustments too! Though Norfolk Southern freight traffic was heavy on the western mainline from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh the line is fairly accessible by public roads, overpasses, and hiking trails. The electrified territory however represents a number of challenges that were not a consideration further west. For one: high speed electrified trains, two: limited access/ visibility because of electric traction (catenary) systems and a mainline that is largely grade separated, three: many in tact and operating PRR facilities that have been re-purposed or are still used to manage traffic flow along the line. While later is very exciting the first two are a little nerve wracking until you are put in the good hands of Amtrak's safety crews.

Safety training and planning for this project started early on, visiting various sites requires commitments from Amtrak officials to ensure that everyone on-site its educated on what to expect and that there is a chain of command to ensure all parties are not at risk while working on, or near the tracks. Having said this, I want to be clear to anyone who reads this: This work is done with permission utilizing proper safety precautions, and while I make an effort not to include people in the images here on the blog, they are there, keeping an eye out for me while I am working!  I do not in any way support trespassing on private property, especially when moving equipment can put you or other individuals at risk!

View looking East from #2 Track. Note the historic 1929 train station complex and Cork interlocking tower (right - just past bridge). This line has recently seen upgrading including new track and signal systems as far as Harrisburg for Amtrak's Keystone Service and daily Pennsylvanian to Pittsburgh.

View looking East from #2 Track. Note the historic 1929 train station complex and Cork interlocking tower (right - just past bridge). This line has recently seen upgrading including new track and signal systems as far as Harrisburg for Amtrak's Keystone Service and daily Pennsylvanian to Pittsburgh.

Lancaster

Having said that I wanted to provide and great example of an image that was made in the last few weeks at the Lancaster, Pennsylvania station area. The large black and white image is the image I made using my standard camera of choice, a 5x7 view camera, this camera requires patience and concentration in addition to a strong back to lug it around, particularly on this 90+ degree day!

The inset image, taken by Cassidy Hobbs, a Drexel Student and architecture intern with Amtrak, shows (from left to right), the watchman, myself (setting up the shot), and the safety foreman. This shot was made  across the main tracks on the West End of the station complex. This set up is typical when within 15' of the track area, and without this protection you are trespassing! While I look forward to sharing more imagery on this part of the project, I will remind my viewers about safety, since its a big concern for all of us on this project!