Photographs & History

Photographs and History

The Downingtown & Lancaster Branch

While the Mainline Tour has kept focus on the Pennsylvania Railroad’s major east-west main and freight by-passes on the Philadelphia Division, we take a diverging path as we leave the Lancaster area to explore the former Downingtown & Lancaster Railroad, an interesting branch line operation that may have been the result of early efforts to expand the PRR soon after its charter. 

The western end of the Downingtown & Lancaster Branch joined the PRR mainline just east of the Conestoga River bridge. This undated view of ES tower with its classic wood frame structure looks east on the mainline where it collapses from four to two tracks to cross the Conestoga. Left and behind the tower you can see the diverging route of the D&L. Image is from the collection of the Lancaster History Archive

The western end of the Downingtown & Lancaster Branch joined the PRR mainline just east of the Conestoga River bridge. This undated view of ES tower with its classic wood frame structure looks east on the mainline where it collapses from four to two tracks to cross the Conestoga. Left and behind the tower you can see the diverging route of the D&L. Image is from the collection of the Lancaster History Archive

Early History: Surviving segment of Thomson’s Poker Game? No sooner than the completion of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s mainline from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh the fledging carrier looked to expand its empire by purchasing rights, property and franchises to gain entry to new markets and expand upon their existing system. Largely driven by third president, J. Edgar Thomson, one of the largest single objectives was to gain direct access to Philadelphia. This would require control of the Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad, an 82-mile rail route that connected Philadelphia to the canal system at the P&C’s western terminus Columbia, all of which was part of the state-owned Mainline of Public Works. Though poorly engineered and in deplorable condition due to the mounting debt of the entire operation, the route had potential if the right funding could be secured and a staff of knowledgeable railroad men could be utilized to plan and execute improvements. This however would not be the problem for Thomson; it was more so the state who demanded a hefty sum for the Mainline of Public Works in its entirety with the clause that all parts of the system be improved and remain operational.  Thompson's response? Build another railroad and marginalize the state system.  Thus attention was focused on the recently incorporated Lancaster, Lebanon & Pine Grove Railroad, a start up enterprise looking to establish a connection between the Norristown Railroad and the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy & Lancaster Railroad which would essentially make the need for the P&C irrelevant. Founded in 1852, Christian Spangler a prominent Philadelphia businessman was named commissioner of the new line. Spangler, also a PRR board member would soon be named president of the railroad in 1853.  In the spring of the same year survey crews worked between Lebanon and Cornwall doing just enough work to look like the Lancaster & Pine Grove would come to fruition.

Detail of the 1855 map under Chief Engineer H. P Haupt shows the proposed Lebanon, Lancaster & Pine Grove Railroad (across the upper center area of the map) which would eliminate the need to purchase the State's failing Mainline of Public Works. Though the route was never built the similarities of the line with Downingtown & Lancaster branch makes one wonder if the property had once been considered to be part of the plan had the Commonwealth and the PRR never came to terms. Map collection of the Library of Congress

Detail of a 1911 PRR system map showing the New Holland Branch, symbolic of the corporate restructuring that rolled the D&L franchise into the PRR portfolio of lines and assets. Map Collection of the author

Detail of a 1911 PRR system map showing the New Holland Branch, symbolic of the corporate restructuring that rolled the D&L franchise into the PRR portfolio of lines and assets. Map Collection of the author

In 1854, facing the reality of an investment that now accounted for almost all of the Commonwealth’s debt, fear of financial ruin motivated the state legislature to pass an act to sell the Mainline of Public Works in its entirety for the highest bidder above 10 Million dollars. The PRR wouldn’t budge; Thomson continued his bluff letting contracts to begin minimal construction with no intention of building an actual railroad but rather to force the hand of canal commissioners to sell on the PRR’s terms and price point.  For the next three years Thomson continued to wage his bets, showing public support for the construction of the Lancaster & Pine Grove. In 1855 the state legislature authorized another sale complete with operational clauses for the State Works to be sold at a minimum bid of $7.5 million; still no takers. Finally in 1857 a third bill was authorized for sale at or above $7.5 million including all rolling stock and property.  With no other offers the PRR took control of the Mainline of Public Works in its entirety on August 1st, 1857.  Now that Thomson had the last piece of railroad to complete a wholly owned mainline between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh the Lancaster & Pine Grove Railroad would be dropped.

 

While the bidding war for the PRR to assumed control of P&C raged on, the East Brandywine Railroad had chartered in 1854, building an 18 mile line between the mainline at Downingtown and Waynesburg (later Honebrook), Pennsylvania. Commencing operations in 1860 and reorganizing as the East Brandywine & Waynesburg Railroad Company the railroad extended another ten miles west to New Holland by 1876 operating in rich agricultural country. The line was operated by the PRR under leases until June of 1888, when the property was sold under foreclosure and the company reorganized as the Downingtown & Lancaster Railroad Company.  The road would later be extended from New Holland to Conestoga Junction, a total of 9.8 miles, opening for traffic in September of 1890 with the PRR operating the entire line as agent. The Downingtown & Lancaster was never intended to operate as a primary route, with a ruling grade of 1.6% westward, but the rural line did service the agricultural region with connections to the mainline at both ends. When comparing the proposed route of the Lancaster & Pine Grove on Herman Haupt’s 1855 map the uncanny similarity of the route with parts of the D&L makes one wonder if the alignment is surviving property that was pawn to Thompson’s high stakes poker game to gain control of the P&C. 

 

The eastern end of contemporary operations is centered around Musselman Lumber in New Holland proper. Trackage here used to feature a wye track for turning locomotives, a freight station (which is now occupied by a screen printing company) and several public delivery tracks. The branch continues to the far eastern end of town and terminates around New Holland Concrete but currently no customers are utilizing rail east of this area

The eastern end of contemporary operations is centered around Musselman Lumber in New Holland proper. Trackage here used to feature a wye track for turning locomotives, a freight station (which is now occupied by a screen printing company) and several public delivery tracks. The branch continues to the far eastern end of town and terminates around New Holland Concrete but currently no customers are utilizing rail east of this area

The Downingtown & Lancaster in the 20th Century: In 1903 the 37.5 mile line, property and franchises were officially purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad and operation remained much the same as it had for some time. New Holland was one of the larger centers for traffic on the branch, originally home to New Holland Machine, Musselman Brother’s Feed and Lumber, EM Rutter & Co. among several others. One particular company stood out later becoming a major shipper on the branch; New Holland Machine. Founded in 1875 by Abraham Zimmerman a black smith and mechanical genius, Zimmerman began offering his services to area farmers in need of repair or fabrication of farming equipment. Zimmerman grew his business carefully watching the rising need for the internal combustion engines in the farming industry.  Despite imperfect designs Zimmerman saw potential in these machines and sought to improve them by developing a new freeze proof water-cooled engine.  By 1903 Zimmerman had incorporated the New Holland Machine Company hiring 40 employees to mass-produce the engines in a facility located on Franklin Street.  Other items in Zimmerman’s product line included feed grinders, rock crushers and wood saws. By 1911 the company had grown to 150 employees and in 1927 the company employed 225. In 1947 the Sperry Corporation purchased New Holland Machine becoming Sperry-New Holland. Since the acquisition the company has changed hands several times and is now a brand of CNH Global which is majority owned by Fiat International. The New Holland, PA location remains the North American headquarters and is one of the largest plants for manufacturing hay tools in the world.

The frame combination freight and passenger station at Leola provided very modest accommodations for passengers up until 1930 when service was discontinued. 

The frame combination freight and passenger station at Leola provided very modest accommodations for passengers up until 1930 when service was discontinued. 

William L. Seigford hired with the PRR in December of 1959 and was later promoted and transferred from the West Coast territory of the PRR to the Harrisburg Division where he was assigned to the Lancaster Territory. Locally based in the Lancaster area, part of his territory included the New Holland Branch. Among other major shippers, Bill worked closely with Sperry – New Holland, who received both inbound steel from various mills and shipped finished product. At one particular time during the final years of the Penn Central era Sperry was experiencing a surge in production and the railroad had difficulty providing the necessary flat cars on a daily basis to move the finished product. Bill recalls, “Sperry’s traffic manager came up with the idea to charter a small plane to fly over the railroad in order to scout empty flat cars sitting in yards or sidings and insisted I go with them. We flew over Enola then on up the Middle Division to Lewistown where they (Sperry) loaded flatcars at the public delivery tracks with product from their Belleville Plant.” Through a stop off arrangement written in the PRR tariffs, these flat cars would be partially loaded in New Holland then shipped to either the Mountville plant or Lewistown to be completed depending on what dealers out west needed in their shipment. During the early Conrail era, Philadelphia’s marketing offices quickly realized they were loosing money on the additional stop off and sought to put an end to the unprofitable arrangement. Shipment of outbound loads tapered off ending in the early 1980's but the plant continued to received inbound steel for a few more years until Sperry had the necessary trucking companies to haul both. 

The D&L faced several abandonments with the first major change in the 1950’s when 8 miles were abandoned severing the line’s end points. By the 1960’s the entire east end from Downingtown was gone and Honeybrook (formerly Waynesburg) was the far end of the branch from Lancaster. Conrail continued to cut the line back eventually making East Earl the end of the line. Today trackage ends on the far-east end of New Holland near New Holland Cement. The remainder of the extant line in service connects with the former PRR mainline in Lancaster at Conestoga interlocking continuing 12.8 miles to the end of track. Though Sperry-New Holland doesn’t ship by rail the branch remains very profitable, being served today Monday through Friday by Norfolk Southern's locals H28 and H29 (afternoon relief crew) and is home to major shippers like Dart Container, L&S Sweeteners, RR Donnelley Printing and several others.  

I would like to acknowledge both William L. Seigford and Mark Hoffman for taking the time to show me around the branch and share a wealth of information on the operations and local history of the New Holland branch through its later PRR, PC and Conrail operations.

By Rail to the Boardwalk

Pennsylvania Railroad Class K4 Pacific 4595 takes on water from track tanks inside the gage of the rail at Ancora, New Jersey. The track tanks allowed steam engines to take on water at speed to avoid lengthly service stops and tying up the mainline and were once a common practice in many places along parent road, Pennsylvania Railroad. The ubiquitous PRR Class K4 was one of many locomotives the parent company provided to the PRSL for service. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

Pennsylvania Railroad Class K4 Pacific 4595 takes on water from track tanks inside the gage of the rail at Ancora, New Jersey. The track tanks allowed steam engines to take on water at speed to avoid lengthly service stops and tying up the mainline and were once a common practice in many places along parent road, Pennsylvania Railroad. The ubiquitous PRR Class K4 was one of many locomotives the parent company provided to the PRSL for service. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

Every Memorial Day marks the beginning of a tradition in the Delaware Valley where thousands of families migrate “down the shore” for summer vacations along the Garden State’s sandy beaches. Today it largely involves a flux of vehicular traffic on the congested 42 Freeway and Atlantic City Expressway, making an already miserable drive even less tolerable.  While sitting in traffic many don’t realize there was actually a time where people from all over the northeast and across the country could catch regular train service to most of the Atlantic and Cape May County resort towns. With through sleeper service from destinations all over the country and train names like The Sea Hawk, The Boardwalk Flyer and the Atlantic City Angler one can only wonder what happened to the great transportation system and America’s beloved playground, Atlantic City.

Eager to tap the seasonal boom in passenger traffic railroads were chartered to reach the Atlantic as early as the 1850’s. By late in the last quarter of the 19th century Southern New Jersey would become the battleground of bitter rivals, the Reading Company and the Pennsylvania Railroad. The PRR operated a network of lines that were consolidated under the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad in 1896.  Operations included Philadelphia to Camden ferries, the Camden & Atlantic Railroad; a direct line to Atlantic City via Haddonfield and the West Jersey Railroad, which ran via Woodbury to Newfield, Millville and ultimately Cape May. The West Jersey Railroad was one of the PRR’s first major electrification projects utilizing DC third rail transmission as far south as Millville and to Atlantic City via the connecting Newfield Branch in 1906.  A part of the branch between Clayton and Franklinville served as a test area in 1907 for motive power development for the NY terminal electrification and opening of Penn Station NY. The Reading’s major route was originally built as the Philadelphia & Atlantic City Railway in 1877 by former officers of the Camden & Atlantic. The line was built as a narrow gage operation to save money, running some 54 miles in length and was completed in just 90 days! The following year the operation fell into bankruptcy and several years later the Central Railroad of NJ and the Reading went in together to purchase the operation. Immediately after taking control the Reading converted the line to standard gage and double tracked the entire route for increased traffic. By 1885 the Reading acquired full control of the railroad and later expanded operations mirroring the WJ&S all the way to Cape May by purchasing other lines including the Ocean City Railroad, Cape May, Delaware Bay & Sewell’s Point Railroad and the Seacoast Railroad.

A PRSL local train powered by a Reading G class pacific locomotive heads south through Lucaston, New Jersey in the afternoon of September 3rd, 1954. Like the PRR the Reading provided motive power much of which consisted of various G class Pacifics that were built in the company shops in Reading, Pennsylvania. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

A PRSL local train powered by a Reading G class pacific locomotive heads south through Lucaston, New Jersey in the afternoon of September 3rd, 1954. Like the PRR the Reading provided motive power much of which consisted of various G class Pacifics that were built in the company shops in Reading, Pennsylvania. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

Camden was the epicenter of operations for both railroads, maintaining extensive freight and passenger terminals, ferry service and car float service to move freight cars to neighboring terminals in Philadelphia. The PRR increased accessibility to the WJ&S in 1896 when it opened the Delaware River Railroad & Bridge Company. Operating as a wholly owned PRR subsidiary, the company consisted of a 9.2 mile, double track line connecting to the PRR mainline at Frankford Junction. The line crossed the Delaware River on the Delair Bridge, an impressive span consisting of over 2500’ of approach trestle and a river channel crossed by three fixed Pennsylvania truss spans and one through truss swing span to allow marine traffic passage on the river. Once in New Jersey the line connected with the Camden & Amboy allowing movements to both Camden and to and from Trenton, The Bridge branch then continued east then south to connect with the Camden & Atlantic at Vernon interlocking in Haddonfield, creating a direct link to seashore resorts while bypassing the congested Camden terminal.  

For a time both railroads enjoyed prosperous service hauling countless express and local trains to the Jersey Shore, but by the 1920’s it became evident that the rise of the automobile and the completion of the Ben Franklin Bridge (originally named the Delaware River Bridge) in 1926 meant major competition and declining revenues for both railroads. During the Great Depression hearings with the NJ Public Utilities Commission aimed toward a merger of operations in order to mitigate the mounting financial losses. Effective June 25th 1933 the competitors ended their rivalry to become the Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines. Immediately following the merger the PRSL was busy building new facilities and inter-line connections to ration duplicate trackage and bring together the physical plant of the former competitors. Despite the Great Depression the railroad commenced construction on a new Union Terminal in Atlantic City that provided a large spacious station to handle all Atlantic City service, which was previously spread over three different stations. In Camden the Reading’s “new” Kaign’s Point Terminal was closed after just ten years of operation shifting everything to the newly expanded PRR Federal Street terminal where many trains still made Philadelphia connections via the PRR’s aging ferry fleet. By the mid-30s vacationers and commuters alike were offered a new service that would ultimately spell the demise of the ferries. A rapid transit rail link between Philadelphia and Camden utilizing a dedicated right of way over the Ben Franklin Bridge provided connection with Philadelphia Rapid Transit’s Frankford Elevated and Broad Street Lines. 

Southbound PRSL train passes through Kirkwood, New Jersey with PRR K-4 class locomotive 8746 and eleven cars, circa Summer of 1950. The Kirkwood station is actually where the modern day Lindenwold Station is for both New Jersey Transit and the PATCO high speed line. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

Southbound PRSL train passes through Kirkwood, New Jersey with PRR K-4 class locomotive 8746 and eleven cars, circa Summer of 1950. The Kirkwood station is actually where the modern day Lindenwold Station is for both New Jersey Transit and the PATCO high speed line. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

During World War II the railroad thrived as many did, though tourist travel declined the US Army turned Atlantic City into a major recruitment and training center for troops, often practicing maneuvers and amphibious beach landings much to the visiting tourist’s dismay. Many industries served by the railroad were converted into military defense plants and ports were overrun with outgoing equipment and supplies adding to the bottom line. Taking advantage of the need for scrap metal, the PRSL management targeted several unprofitable lines for salvage during the war years, which also helped the company to improve finances. After the war, like their parent roads the PRSL began a long slow decline as people took to the newly developed highways. Initiatives were taken to build new passenger traffic running dedicated trains to both the Garden State Race Track and new Atlantic City Race Track in 1947. Additional specials were marketed toward the many conventions held in Atlantic City, which provided income year round, helping the cash flow shortage when traditional seasonal traffic dropped off. Public outcry of the deteriorating appearance and services provided by the railroad initiated a PUC investigation.  As a result the railroad agreed to modernize and air condition the 60-car P70 passenger fleet began while the Bridge and Building department focused on cleaning up and painting stations and structures, additionally the purchase of new diesel locomotives allowed for the abandonment of the increasingly expensive Millville electrified service. A bitter coal strike around the same time forced the PRSL to begin looking to eliminate or at least marginalize steam operations, which happened to coincide with the release of Budd’s venerable RDC cars, a self propelled stainless steel car available in different configuraions that would greatly improve operations especially on lighter traffic lines. After testing the cars both the PRSL and local politicians were thrilled with their potential, making the last minute move to purchase 12 units in substitution of rebuilding the last 20 car lot of P-70s. The RDC’s arrived in 1950/51 at a cost $1.7 million and immediately were assigned to Cape May service where cars could drop off at Tuckahoe and Wildwood Junction as their own trains to the outlying destinations eliminating the need for additional locomotives and servicing facilities that were previously necessary.

In the Summer of 1954 PRSL local 656 pauses at the Kirkwood Station led by a Reading G class Pacific. Note the depot on the southbound side has been demolished since the view above in 1950. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

In the Summer of 1954 PRSL local 656 pauses at the Kirkwood Station led by a Reading G class Pacific. Note the depot on the southbound side has been demolished since the view above in 1950. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

Despite improvements the railroad continued to decline citing an 88% increase in operating expenses while utilizing a federally governed fare scale that had not changed since 1920.  In May of 1952 the railroad opened the new Broadway Station in Camden providing convenient connections with the rapid transit line to Philadelphia. As a result the railroad could finally close the Federal Street terminal and ferry service for good in March of 1952. The 1960’s were much the same; Atlantic City was no longer a haven for vacationers and air travel had become much cheaper and faster. People were no longer flocking to the Jersey Shore as a flight to Florida, the Caribbean or even the West Coast was now readily available. The newly formed Delaware River Port Authority opened a second Delaware River bridge (Walt Whitman) and the looming construction of the Atlantic City Expressway spelled almost certain death for passenger travel by rail in Southern New Jersey. Compounded by the PRR and Reading’s financial distress the PRSL finally began taking state subsidies to keep passenger service running. In contrast to the passenger situation freight service was booming, the PRSL spanned large tracts of undeveloped land along the Delaware River in Gloucester and Salem County that were ripe for development. Situated along the Penns Grove line major facilities for Shell, Monsanto and DuPont were built and served exclusively by the PRSL. Additionally Atlantic City Electric would build a coal-fired power plant in Beesley’s Point at the mouth of the Tuckahoe River that would be accessed by a spur leaving the Ocean City Branch in Palermo. In contrast to the increase in freight traffic, 1963 saw passenger losses at a staggering $1.9 million. The following year saw the beginning of the end as a project that would greatly change commuter rail service in Southern New Jersey commenced. The result of a 10 year study and the middle of three proposed routes, ground was broken on a new rapid transit line that would operate between Lindenwold, New Jersey and Center City Philadelphia via the Delaware River Rapid Transit Line. The line would utilize a heavily rebuilt grade separated line along the former C&A right of way from Broadway station in Camden to the terminal in Lindenwold where a new shop complex and transit center would be constructed.

Part of this project called for all existing PRSL trackage in downtown Camden to be eliminated necessitating the expansion of Pavonia Yard and the construction of a new connection just east of Delair to the Bridge Branch providing trains a southern connection to the former C&A. Once in Haddonfield PRSL trains would continue operating on a separate track parallel to the new PATCO service on a grade separated right of way to Lindenwold, resuming its original alignment to Atlantic City. In 1965 the final phase of the AC Expressway was complete severing access to the 1933 Union Statio necessitating the construction of a new station in an isolated area far from the resorts and beaches. In 1969 the new PATCO system commenced operations and in October of the same year, the PRSL terminated all passenger service west of Lindenwold. The remaining Cape May and Atlantic City trains would now require connections via PATCO to reach Philadelphia at the Lindenwold transportation center. Remaining freight lines including the Vineland, Penns Grove and Beesley’s Point branches would still be accessed via an adjusted mainline that was once the connecting track between Center and Mill interlockings in south Camden also sharing a short elevated fill with the PATCO line.

On the heals of a healthy upturn in freight traffic the financial crisis of the Penn Central was devastating for the PRSL, cutting off all cash flow with the bankruptcy of the larger parent of the PRSL. Not long after the Reading would follow suit as the repercussions of the PC bankruptcy resonated through the Northeast. In years to come Nixon would sign the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 and after the USRA developed a system plan in 1976 the PRSL would cease to exist being rolled into the Consolidated Rail Corporation commonly known as Conrail. Following the creation of Conrail and a cash infusion into the region, freight service continued to benefit. Marginally performing lines were spun off and continue to operate today including the Winchester & Western Railroad the Southern Railroad of New Jersey (formerly the Shore Fast Line) and the county owned Salem Branch. After 1976 passenger service was placed under the control of the NJ Department of Transportation (NJDOT) with Conrail acting as the contract operator. Despite the arrangement the overwhelming responsibility the State was just sidled with of taking over all commuter operations in both North and South Jersey, much-needed funds never came to the former PRSL operation. Citing bad track, a failed movable bridge and poor ridership Cape May and Ocean City service ended in October of 1981 with Atlantic City service following suit in 1982 ending a legacy of a 128 years of continual passenger service in Southern New Jersey.

An off season Camden to Hammonton local running via the former Atlantic City Railroad mainline crosses Vasser Ave in Stratford, New Jersey, December 6th, 1952. In short time the PRSL will remove the second main track on this line reflecting the diminishing train service on the secondary mainline to Atlantic City. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

An off season Camden to Hammonton local running via the former Atlantic City Railroad mainline crosses Vasser Ave in Stratford, New Jersey, December 6th, 1952. In short time the PRSL will remove the second main track on this line reflecting the diminishing train service on the secondary mainline to Atlantic City. Photography by Robert L. Long, Collection of William Gindhart

During the 1980’s gambling appeared to be bringing life back to Atlantic City and hopes to resume rail service were expressed by local politicians. In a significant turn of events an agreement was made with the State for Amtrak to rebuild the entire line from Frankford Junction to a new terminal that would eventually tie into the proposed convention center. On May 23rd, 1989 Amtrak’s inaugural departure left 30th Street station under the moniker of the Gambler’s Express, just a few months later, New Jersey Transit would commence Lindenwold to Atlantic City commuter operations.  Amtrak would eventually run through service from the Philadelphia International Airport, Richmond, Washington, Springfield and New York but high fares and poor marketing would ultimately spell the demise of the short lived service which was withdrawn on April 1, 1995. This left NJT as the sole operator of commuter service between 30th Street Station and Atlantic City. Today NJT continues to offer service on the AC line but it remains unseen as to what the future holds for this operation. Potential seems high if politicians fought to increase train frequency and connect the line with the increasingly popular Atlantic City airport. Other proposals call for a return of service to Cape May County, but as of now much of this seems unlikely. Another revival in Southern New Jersey passenger rail service commenced in 2004, when light rail service commenced on the former Camden & Amboy between Camden and Trenton. The new operation; a design, build and operate program with Bombardier affords commuters access to NYC while improving connectivity with both the PATCO line in Camden and AC Line in Pennsauken.

Today freight operations are still based out of Pavonia Yard however Conrail as a railroad, survives only as terminal operation. The Shared Assets arrangement was part of the 1999 split up of Conrail, which much to the contrast of when it began operations in 1976, the company had become an attractive, highly profitable operation. As a concession to federal regulators to maintain a fair market to shippers, Norfolk Southern and CSX maintain Conrail operations in three key terminals; South Jersey, North Jersey and Detroit. Like the PRSL the two parents share a similar arrangement of terminal access and financial responsibility making South Jersey rail operations a unique and diverse operation. Through out the souther part of New Jersey, faint visual clues remain of what once was, wether it be wider than utilized right of ways, surviving stations or abandoned paths, but the heart of PRSL operations to Atlantic City and its later advances in freight continue to be a viable part of the area's economy and transportation infrastructure. 

I'd like to acknowledge the generosity of William (Bill) Gindhart for providing the imagery for this article. Bill was a neighbor and friend of Robert L. Long is a long time railroad enthusiast and photographer. His imagery is commonly associated with the waning days of the PRSL service, putting a face to the decking years of a once great railroad empire in Southern New Jersey. 

 

The Railroad Family

Recently I had the privilege to attend a retirement luncheon for a gentleman I worked with at Conrail on the Delair Bridge Project. Gary Golden was retiring after 36 years of service, finishing a long career in the Bridge & Building department. From my limited time with Gary I found he was always a courteous and professional figure on the outages, he never once hesitated to help us with some outrageous production request or wait until the first train came through hours after an outage had been finished. Over the two plus years I have been working with Conrail I came to realize that Gary’s outlook on the job was not the exception but the norm. Confirmation of this came through informal conversations during the event with both current and retired Conrail vets and the speeches that caused even the most rugged men in the room to tear up. Senior staff from the engineering department were present and Assistant Chief Engineer Eric Levin said it best, that, “working at Conrail is like being part of a tight knit community, a family that looks after one another day in and day out while taking pride in keeping the trains moving.” The many people before and after Gary represent a time-honored tradition that helped develop our country and keep people and goods moving through times of conflict and peace. Additionally railroaders of Gary’s era are part of a generation that lived through the biggest turn-around in US rail history rising from the ashes of bankruptcy in the 1970s, rebuilding the network tie by tie. With Gary and the many others that will follow into retirement, another generation of knowledge will turn over, but the understanding and traditions of the “way it used to be” will go with them.  For Mr. Golden and the many like him, thank you, while you may not know it, your outlook on the job has likely provided insight to an outsider of the pride common in the ranks of railroad employees.

Best of luck Gary!

Michael Froio

Lancaster Area | Upcoming Lecture!

I am happy to announce that I’ll be presenting  a slide show and discussion on my ongoing photographic project, From the Mainline: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad for the Lancaster Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890’s to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR mainline from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. Using large format film based images this project combines historical research and imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most celebrated railroads in American history for both exhibition and web format. Attendees will also be treated to some of the recent commission work I have been doing for Conrail Shared Assets and some behind the scenes insight on the production of a long term video and time lapse documentation project.

The NRHS was founded in 1935 by a group of rail historians. It has since grown from 40 founding members to include over 13,000 men and women of all ages and professions in every state and many foreign countries, making it the nation’s largest rail preservation and historical society. The lancaster Chapter of the NRHS is one of the founding chapters and has been instrumental in preserving the local rail scene. Notable projects include the restoration of the historic Christiana Station; restoration of the clock at the Lancaster Amtrak station; preservation of Pennsylvania Railroad GG-1 No. 4800, the original GG-1; preservation and relocation of the PRR "J" (Lemo) Tower to Strasburg, Pa., and preservation of the Reading Company FP-7s

The lecture, on Monday June 15th, 2015, is part of the Lancaster Chapter’s monthly meeting. The program is free and open to the public and will begin at 7:30PM at the chapter's beautifully renovated PRR freight station at 10 Railroad Avenue, Christiana, PA  17509-1416

For more information please contact me directly at michael@michaelfroio.com

Preserving the legacy of the Pennsylvania Railroad

At the close of 2014 the Greer Family donated a remarkable piece of Pennsylvania Railroad history in the form of an oversized album of large format photographs made by Frederick Gutekunst (1831-1917) a native of the Germantown section of Philadelphia. Operating out of a studio at 7th and Arch Streets for more than 50 years Gutekunst was considered one of the preeminent photographers in the post-Civil War era. Some of his subjects included noteworthy people like Thomas Eakins and Walt Whitman but also extended beyond portraiture to include architecture and the built environment of the PRR. Before this album surfaced most examples of his work were in the form of stereo views, making this collection of 16x12” large format prints incredibly rare.

Plate 61, Allegheny Tunnel, Galitzen, Pennsylvania. One of 91 beautiful images from the Album of Frederick Gutekunst's photographs recently donated to the Library Company of Philadelphia by the Greer family. Image collection of Library Company of Philadelphia

Plate 61, Allegheny Tunnel, Galitzen, Pennsylvania. One of 91 beautiful images from the Album of Frederick Gutekunst's photographs recently donated to the Library Company of Philadelphia by the Greer family. Image collection of Library Company of Philadelphia

The portfolio, dating from ca. 1875, titled simple “Scenery of the Pennsylvania Railroad” represents one in a series of campaigns the PRR embarked on to celebrate the railroad as a destination, touting the freshly manicured railroad dissecting the wilds of Pennsylvania, following serpentine rivers, paralleling the canals the road made obsolete; a symbol of modern engineering and progress in America. Fittingly the railroad chose photography over traditional illustrations and paintings, providing a tangible image which potential travelers could connect to, a portal into the world of the PRR and the landscape it traveled. Like his contemporary William H. Rau, Gutekunst utilized the large plate view camera to portray the growing railroad as the country recovered from the American Civil War. This remarkable portfolio illustrates the Pennsylvania Railroad before the grand system improvements started under Chief Engineer William H. Brown and his successors, which would last from the late 1870’s well into the first decade of the 20th Century.

On the Conemaugh at Lockport, Pennsylvania, by Frederick Gutekunst. Up until the PRR portfolio surfaced, much of Gutekunst's work for the PRR was only known to exist in stereo views like this. Image collection of Library Company of Philadelphia.

On the Conemaugh at Lockport, Pennsylvania, by Frederick Gutekunst. Up until the PRR portfolio surfaced, much of Gutekunst's work for the PRR was only known to exist in stereo views like this. Image collection of Library Company of Philadelphia.

What makes this donation even more special, especially to PRR preservationists is that we owe a great debt of gratitude to a former Pennsylvania Railroad employee for having the foresight and pride in his employer to save the portfolio.

David St. John Greer, was born in Philadelphia in 1914, his father a laborer and his mother a seamstress. Settling in New Jersey, David completed high school in Pemberton, NJ and enrolled in a 4-year business administration program at Drexel University. Graduating from Drexel in 1937, Greer would begin a 32-year career with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Though the details of his early years with the company are limited, in 1943 despite being exempt as a railroad employee to serve during WWII, he felt compelled to serve his country and enlisted in the Navy. Greer was never deployed in active war but was appointed as the Assistant Supervisor of Exports for the PRR Port of Philadelphia and later served as the District Property Transportation Officer in the Port of Philadelphia Customs House while also acting on the Ports Conditions Committee. Greer was released from active duty in January of 1946 as a Lieutenant returning to his civilian job with the PRR. Over the next 11 years Greer worked all over the system as a Supervising Agent for important terminals like Williamsport, Harrisburg, the company piers of New York, and Philadelphia. In 1953 he was promoted to Superintendent of Stations in the Pittsburgh Region and later the Chicago area from 1955-57. By the end of 1957 Greer was promoted to Manager / Director of Freight Stations and Motor Service on the entire system, responsible for all stations and trucking companies owned by the PRR. In 1968, the fateful year long time rivals PRR and NYC merged Greer was appointed Director of Stations system wide where he served just one short year, deciding that he could no longer work for the merged railroads.

David St. John Greer, pictured here in the center of the middle row (dark suit) was a devoted Pennsylvania Railroad employee who purchased the Gutekunst album after the ill fated merger of the PRR and rival New York Central in 1968. After being in their possession for over 45 years the Greer family decided to donate the album to the Library Company of Philadelphia where it will  join a sizable collection of Gutekunst's work along side the William H. Rau commissions for the PRR. Image courtesy of the Greer Family. 

David St. John Greer, pictured here in the center of the middle row (dark suit) was a devoted Pennsylvania Railroad employee who purchased the Gutekunst album after the ill fated merger of the PRR and rival New York Central in 1968. After being in their possession for over 45 years the Greer family decided to donate the album to the Library Company of Philadelphia where it will  join a sizable collection of Gutekunst's work along side the William H. Rau commissions for the PRR. Image courtesy of the Greer Family. 

During that last year, the PC worked to wipe the slate of documents and ephemera from the PRR archives offering items for sale to employees and later holding public auctions. It was here that Greer purchased the Gutekunst Album along with a number of other pieces of PRR memorabilia. Greer’s son, David, recalls, “My father loved the PRR and hated the merger. He particularly loved freight operations. He worked in places that included many of the locations in Pennsylvania pictured in the [Gutekunst] photographs and felt a close kinship to the railroad and the state of Pennsylvania. He took good care of the album but would occasionally sit and look at the photos much as I have done for the past twenty years.” David’s father gifted many of the other items he purchased at auction after his retirement, but held on to the album of photographs. “I think it is telling he kept the photographs, clearly the most valuable piece of railroad memorabilia he had. He also kept things that I think reminded him of the good times on the railroad. As an example he kept and displayed the menu from his dinner on the last run of the all Pullman Broadway Limited. The train crew signed the menu and he kept it along with some of the serving pieces that were used for this dinner. I think he felt that the end of the Broadway Limited was the end of an era. He flew to Chicago on business so that he could ride home on the Limited’s last eastbound trip as an all Pullman train, disembarking at Paoli near his home.”

Survived by his daughter Ann Hiros and son David Greer, David St. John Greer passed in December of 1993, leaving the album among other items with the family. In late 2013 I had heard about the album surfacing through PRRT&HS archivist Charlie Horan and in March of 2014 had the pleasure of meeting David on a train trip to Pittsburgh riding the Juniata Terminal Company PRR 120 and the Warrior Ridge (A Ride on the Pennsylvania). Dave expressed his interest in donating the album to a place that not only could care for it properly but also make it accessible to the public. Given my experience with the Rau collection housed at the Library Company of Philadelphia I suggested that David consider the institution, not only because of Gutkunst’s Philadelphia connection but also because of the existing collection of his work already at the LCP. It would also bring together two very important collections of photography that focused on the Pennsylvania Railroad from the 19th Century. At the close of 2014 the Greer family ultimately decided the album belonged in LCP’s permanent collection, adding to an incredible archive of 19th Century prints and photographs. We are lucky to have this resource preserved where it will ultimately be digitized for many future generations to enjoy in the honor of David St John Greer and photographer Frederick Gutekunst.

Watershed Project - Upcoming Exhibition

Bluffs on Crosswicks Creek, near Bordentown, New Jersey. This is one of 14  images from the Watershed series that will be part of an exhibition at the Perkins Center for Arts - Collingswood. The show opens Saturday, March 14th with a reception from 6-9pm.

Bluffs on Crosswicks Creek, near Bordentown, New Jersey. This is one of 14  images from the Watershed series that will be part of an exhibition at the Perkins Center for Arts - Collingswood. The show opens Saturday, March 14th with a reception from 6-9pm.

Watershed: The southern half of the Delaware River Basin is steeped in history, once the backbone of shipping and manufacturing and home to countless communities along its banks. The Delaware itself and the many unremarked tributaries that feed into it play host to a diverse Eco system that thrives along side industrial sites, refineries and countless miles of swamp and unremarked landscapes covered in bay grass, scrub pines and oaks. There is a feeling of emptiness in these landscapes, an absence of human life. Scars left behind from dredging dumps and brownfield sites only highlight nature’s resilience to recover these swaths, its ability to thrive even under the duress of neighboring highway noise, pollution and encroaching housing developments. The Watershed Project is about the beauty of the benign and unremarked place challenging our perception of the natural landscape while celebrating an important resource of the greater Delaware Valley.

I am excited to announce that I will be included in a three person exhibition that will open next Saturday, March 14th at the Perkins Center for the Arts in their Collingswood location.  Along with artists Keith Yahrling and Amy Becker I will be showing work from the Watershed Project. The exhibition runs from March 14 - May 2, 2015 with an opening reception on Saturday, March 14 from 6-9 pm. The Perkins Collingswood facility is located at 30 Irvin Ave., Collingswood, NJ 08108. Normal exhibition hours are Tuesdays & Thursdays 10 am – 2 pm, Saturday 10am – 2 pm. The exhibition and opening is free and open to the public. Collingswood offers some terrific options for dining so its a perfect opportunity to get out for a night of art and entertainment. Hope to see you there!

Lecture Next Week | Harrisburg Chapter NRHS

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I am happy to announce that I’ll be presenting  a slide show and discussion on my ongoing photographic project, From the Mainline: A Contemporary Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad for the Harrisburg Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society. Inspired by the work of photographer William H. Rau, who was commissioned in the 1890’s to document the PRR and its destinations, the project explores the transitioning landscape along the former PRR mainline from New York to Pittsburgh, highlighting the unique vernacular of facilities and infrastructure built by the PRR. Using large format film based images this project combines historical research and imagery to present a creative documentation of one of the most celebrated railroads in American history for both exhibition and web format. Attendees will also be treated to some of the recent commission work I have been doing for Conrail Shared Assets and some behind the scenes insight on the production of a long term video and time lapse documentation project.

The NRHS was founded in 1935 by a group of rail historians. It has since grown from 40 founding members to include over 13,000 men and women of all ages and professions in every state and many foreign countries, making it the nation's largest rail preservation and historical society. The Harrisburg Chapter is one of roughly 160 around the country, and widely recognized for its remarkable and innovative preservation efforts including the restoration of Harris Tower and the creation of a interactive installation combining the old interlocking machine with 21st Century technology to recreate the working environment of one of the PRR's busiest towers. For more information about the Harrisburg Chapter of the NRHS, their activities or to plan a trip to the Harris Tower museum visit their website.

The lecture, on March 10th, 2015, is part of the Harrisburg Chapter’s meeting is free and open to the public and will begin at 7PM at the Hoss’s Steak and Seahouse, 743 Wertzville Road, Enola, Pennsylvania

For more information please contact me directly at michael@michaelfroio.com

Delair Project: Highlight Video Is Live!

The Delair project highlights are live! This documentation included fourteen months of work, at times utilizing up to three photographers, working a total of over 800 man-hours to capture 10 terabytes of imagery through bitter cold, snow, rain and miserable heat, day and night. I would like to thank the people at Conrail and all the contractors and consultants for their assistance and patience, without them this project would not have been possible. I would also like to acknowledge the assistance of Samuel Markey who was an integral part of the entire production and Michael Legrand who’s aerial footage added another dynamic to this already massive undertaking. Please click the image above to check out the highlights of the Delair Improvements Project and as always feedback is much appreciated!

Thank you for your time and support!

Michael Froio

Michael Froio Photography, LLC

Delair Bridge Project: Upcoming Release

In the spirit of anticipation I am excited to announce the release of four trailer videos this week for the upcoming public debut of work from the 14 month project documenting the rebuilding of Conrail Shared Assets Delair Bridge. The Delair Bridge, completed in 1896 and heavily modified in the late 1950’s is a vital link between Conrail’s South Jersey operations and parent companies CSX and Norfolk Southern's transportation networks. With this upgrade Conrail can now handle heavier loads and larger trains fostering economic growth in Southern New Jersey. This project is part of an $18.5 million Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant awarded to the South Jersey Ports by the US Department of Transportation.

I was initially asked to provide a basic documentation for the project which grew into a major production conducted over 6 - three day/ 72 hour scheduled outages where up to 13 bridge spans were replaced and track renewed. As you can imagine a project of this scope cannot be done by one person; I was fortunate enough to work with two other very talented Drexel Photography graduates; Samuel Markey (Class of 2011) who contributed his extensive knowledge of time lapse production, shooting and editing and Michael Legrand (Class of 2000) who provided aerial footage which added an amazing element to the documentation. At times we utilized up to six cameras to capture the various crafts working together to meet the tight deadlines the railroad required in order to minimize service disruptions. Several contractors including Cornell Steel, Thackray Crane and Railworks were managed by Jacobs Engineering to complete scheduled work within the allotted 72 hour slot through snow, rain, extreme temperatures and physical conditions. Next week you can expect more trailer releases and the finished highlight reel which is slated to go live late in the week. I hope you enjoy the work! As always please feel free to comment and share!

 

Last week for Monmouth Museum Exhibition!

The Izaak Walton Inn was constructed by the Great Northern Railway in 1939 just outside of Glacier National Park near Essex, Montana. This image is one of several by contemporary photographer Travis Dewitz included in the exhibition "All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel" at the Monmouth Museum in Lincroft, NJ. Image courtesy of Travis Dewitz

The Izaak Walton Inn was constructed by the Great Northern Railway in 1939 just outside of Glacier National Park near Essex, Montana. This image is one of several by contemporary photographer Travis Dewitz included in the exhibition "All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel" at the Monmouth Museum in Lincroft, NJ. Image courtesy of Travis Dewitz

If you have not had a chance please take the time to visit the Monmouth Museum to view the exhibition "All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel". This visually stunning and informative exhibition will be on view for another week, closing January 4th, 2015. For hours and additional information, please call the Museum at 732-747-2266, or visit the website at: www.monmouthmuseum.org. Museum admission is $7 per person

The Monmouth Museum, a private, non-profit organization, is located at 765 Newman Springs Road, in Lincroft, NJ.

Merry Christmas from the Mainline !

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The railroad never stops, nor does the industry it serves. In the shadow of the Coatesville bridge spanning the west branch of the Brandywine River the former Lukens steel mill hums with activity around the clock providing jobs for people in the surrounding communities. As we enjoy the company of family during the holidays, men and women leave home to work in the plant day and night, producing specialized steel to build America's bridges, buildings and infrastructure. For some, working through the holidays seems unthinkable, to the folks in the steel or transportation industry its business as usual. Whether you are home with loved ones or on the job, I would like to wish you all a Merry Christmas !

Happy Holidays from Michael Froio Photography

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Friends, As 2014 winds down and we are amidst the holiday season I’d like to take a moment to thank everyone for all the wonderful words and support. Between formally becoming a small business owner, commercial commissions, lectures, curating an exhibition, writing, research and making photographs for the Mainline Project it has been a truly amazing year. I look forward to taking the final days of 2014 to reflect on the year and spend some much-needed time with the family. Looking forward to 2015 there is a number of events on the horizon,more information will follow after the start of the New Year. I have taken a moment to assemble here some of my favorite holiday posts from years past, enjoy and happy holidays from my family to yours!

Sincerely,

Michael Froio

Holiday Traditions: Story of the Night before Christmas Paintings by PRR employee William W. Seigford Jr.

This time of year, family and friends come together to celebrate the holidays with traditions developed over generations. As a part of our family tradition I have the pleasure to read to my children on Christmas Eve as my father did before, the fabled poem, The Night Before Christmas by Clement Clark Moore. First published anonymously in December of 1823, it is now the tradition in many American families to read the poem on Christmas Eve.

The story and illustrations presented here were made in 1953 by Pennsylvania Railroad employee, William W. Seigford Jr. who maintained an office at the Harrisburg Passenger Station. They were displayed in the station during the Christmas season alternating with other decorations for several years until Seigford was transferred to Cincinnati in 1956. The paintings were never displayed in Cincinnati but remained in Seigford’s possession until he retired from Penn Central as General Foreman of Passenger Locomotives and Cars in July of 1974. After retirement he returned to the Lancaster area and subsequently donated the paintings to Amtrak’s Lancaster Passenger Station for display during the Christmas season. Surviving the Pennsylvania Railroad and Penn Central, all 12 original paintings hang proudly in the beautiful 1929 waiting room under the watchful eye of Amtrak employees Richard Peiffer and Donna Whitney, who facilitated the making of these reproductions for future preservation.

I would like to acknowledge Mr. William (Bill) L. Seigford for his help on this post as well as his continued support on the Mainline Project, his knowledge and generosity have been a invaluable resource.

The Lionel Corporation: Model Railroad Icon of the Holiday Season

Page 12-13 of Lionel's 1947 product catalog illustrating the deluxe train sets # 1447WS and 1459WS featuring accessories including the log dump car and working cattle pen. Note the locomotive which is modeled after the PRR's failed S2 steam turbine locomotive, which ironically Lionel produced more of than the Juniata Shops!  Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

Page 12-13 of Lionel's 1947 product catalog illustrating the deluxe train sets # 1447WS and 1459WS featuring accessories including the log dump car and working cattle pen. Note the locomotive which is modeled after the PRR's failed S2 steam turbine locomotive, which ironically Lionel produced more of than the Juniata Shops!  Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

With modest beginnings Joshua Lionel Cowen and Harry C. Grant founded the Lionel Corporation in 1900, building model trains for retail window displays to help draw consumers to their stores. In 1906 the company responded to the increasing demand for the electric trains in the consumer market and developed its trademark three-rail “standard gage” track to simplify wiring and use of accessories.  By 1915 Lionel would supplement the large standard gage with the budget minded O scale which would later become the standard size of their product lines. Lionel’s use of sharp advertising was ultimately responsible for tying model trains to Christmas, making them popular presents during the holidays, establishing traditions that survive today.  By WWI Lionel was one of three major US manufactures of toy trains, surpassing competitor Ives as the market leader by the 1920’s. Lionel’s growth and aggressive ad campaigns further led to Ives' bankruptcy in 1928.

Lionel 027 gage locomotives and tenders! No Lionel layout was complete with extra motive power, this includes many Pennsy inspired locomotives lettered in both the classic Lionel Lines and PRR. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author. 

Lionel 027 gage locomotives and tenders! No Lionel layout was complete with extra motive power, this includes many Pennsy inspired locomotives lettered in both the classic Lionel Lines and PRR. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author. 

Like many other companies, the Great Depression would be a severe detriment to Lionel’s business, as a result their 1927 operating profit of over $500,000 plummeted to $82,000 in 1930, and ultimately a loss in 1931 of over $200,000 putting Lionel into receivership by May of 1934. A product credited with saving Lionel during the Depression era was a wind up hand car featuring Mickey and Minnie Mouse which Lionel sold well over 250,00 units providing the cash flow to keep the company from closing.

"From the Ranch Lands and Dairy Country!" Lionel was well known for there operating accessories including the Cattle Car and Milk cars both which were accompanied by track side platforms for loading and unloading. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

"From the Ranch Lands and Dairy Country!" Lionel was well known for there operating accessories including the Cattle Car and Milk cars both which were accompanied by track side platforms for loading and unloading. Original 1947 catalog collection of the author.

In 1942 Lionel ceased toy production to produce items for the United States Navy during World War II. Regardless of the lack of toy train production, the advertising department pushed heavily to urge American teenagers to start planning their post-war layouts. By late 1945 Lionel resumed production, replacing their original product lines with more realistic trains and accessories exclusively in O Scale. Considered by many aficionados as the golden years, 1946-1956 saw sales soaring with new items including the famous Santa Fe Warbonnet EMD F3 locomotives as well as the Pennsylvania Railroad GGI and experimental S2 steam turbine locomotive. During the 1950s Lionel would tout its short-lived title of largest toy manufacturer, out selling American Flyer almost 2:1. After 1955 sales declined steadily with the rising popularity of the smaller but more realistic HO Scale and to many the end of the true “Lionel era” was in 1959. Over the years Lionel was diversified unsuccessfully and the name survived in different ways including retail toy outlet Lionel Kiddy City. Today the Lionel name remains the most famous name in model trains, though not associated with the original corporation, Lionel LLC owns most of the product rights and trademarks continuing the legacy started by American businessmen Joshua Lionel and Harry Grant well over 100 years ago.

Holiday Travel: A vintage add from the Pennsylvania Railroad

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William H Brown: The Tale of Two Bridges

In a beautiful image by William H. Rau we see the Conestoga River bridge, one of Brown's first stone bridges. Utilizing the figure and boat as a device for scale in the foreground Rau is looking south, as noted by the finished facade of the bridge. To the left out of view is the Lancaster Water Works which still survives today. Photograph collection American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

In a beautiful image by William H. Rau we see the Conestoga River bridge, one of Brown's first stone bridges. Utilizing the figure and boat as a device for scale in the foreground Rau is looking south, as noted by the finished facade of the bridge. To the left out of view is the Lancaster Water Works which still survives today. Photograph collection American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

In 1881 a rising figure in the Pennsylvania Railroad by the name of William H. Brown was promoted to chief engineer. At 45 years old the Lancaster County native had 31 years under his belt working his way from a rod man on a survey crew in 1850 to the top of one of the most ambitious engineering departments in the railroad world. Brown had a reputation for knowing every grade, curve and crossing on the PRR. As chief engineer his tenure was likely one of the most notable in the transformation of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s physical plant during the 19th and early 20th centuries, implementing various programs of improvements up until his retirement in 1906. According to his obituary in the New York Times he, “made 133 changes and revisions to the mainline, built fourteen elevated railways through cities, forty-one tunnels, and 163 stone bridges, including [the world's largest] Rockville stone bridge.” The last point was perhaps one his more notable achievements and certainly one of the most recognizable today; the stone masonry arch bridge.

The connection between Brown's first two stone bridges are linked to various correspondence in the planning stages for both locations. Born from the endorsement of stone bridges during the four track expansion, they diverged at the time of design. The Conestoga is two tracks with provisions for expansion (note protruding stone work along the arches) the Conemaugh bridge designed and built with four tracks. Both survive today and remain in active service on Amtrak's Keystone corridor and Norfolk Southern's Pittsburgh line respectively. Left detail; Photographer unknown, image courtesy of LancasterHistory.org, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Right detail William H. Rau, collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

The connection between Brown's first two stone bridges are linked to various correspondence in the planning stages for both locations. Born from the endorsement of stone bridges during the four track expansion, they diverged at the time of design. The Conestoga is two tracks with provisions for expansion (note protruding stone work along the arches) the Conemaugh bridge designed and built with four tracks. Both survive today and remain in active service on Amtrak's Keystone corridor and Norfolk Southern's Pittsburgh line respectively. Left detail; Photographer unknown, image courtesy of LancasterHistory.org, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Right detail William H. Rau, collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

Two of the earliest spans Brown designed for the mainline were the crossing of the Conemaugh River in Johnstown and the Conestoga in Lancaster. Though bid separately both were originally to be constructed utilizing iron truss spans until Pittsburgh Division superintendent Robert Pitcairn endorsed the use of stone to Brown instead. Touting stone’s strength, durability and its abundant supply on the PRR, the stone bridge would be a long term solution, able to support the growing traffic and heavier trains the PRR was becoming accustomed to. It was there that the course divided for the two bridges. The Conemaugh bridge was built as planned with four tracks and the first to prove Pitcairn’s endorsement true surviving the wrath of the great flood of 1889 just a year after its completion.

With bridge renewals a major part of the program to expand the PRR’s trademark four track mainline across the state of Pennsylvania, the Brandywine Creek bridge in Coatesville and the Conestoga bridge in Lancaster were the last remaining two track spans west from Philadelphia. As discussed previously, the Lancaster terminal was also a choke point in the movement of traffic necessitating the construction of the Lancaster Cut-Off. Just to the east of the junction of this new route with the old main was the Conestoga River, a 61-mile tributary of the Susquehanna. The crossing of the Conestoga saw several successive bridges built for the railroad; the first a 1400’ long series of wood lattice truss spans dating from the P&C which was consumed by fire and later replaced with a fill and a shortened series of iron Whipple trusses around the Civil War. Though Brown had considered another iron design for Conestoga in 1887 its design ultimately followed the fate of the Conemaugh bridge, choosing to use stone instead. Though initial correspondence suggests the Conestoga bridge was to be a four-track span, costs and traffic levels dictated a compromise in design, building a two-track span with provisions in place for expansion. As a result the five arch, 329’ long stone masonry bridge was constructed with foundations to support a four track span. In addition, contractors left stones protruding from the southern side of the bridge, which would allow for any expansion to tie into the existing structure when demand necessitated. Completed in 1888 traffic grew through the next decade but plans were on the horizon that would direct freight off the mainline to a new dedicated low-grade from Atglen to Columbia, by-passing Lancaster all together. Though the span in Coatesville was replaced in 1906 to support the combined traffic demands east of Atglen the Conestoga bridge was never expanded, nor was the mainline between Lancaster and Royalton since the PRR now had three two-track routes for both freight and passenger moves via the mainline, Atglen & Susquehanna low grade and the Columbia branch.

Today many of Brown’s bridges are still in service without remark; the only exception of course is Shock’s Mills, which partially failed during Hurricane Agnes in 1972. Building like the Romans for an empire in the transportation world, Mr. Brown and other people like him on competing railroads represented the pinnacle of engineering, design and forethought that built the United States and are largely responsible for the rail networks we have today.

Monmouth Museum: Lecture This Friday!

CSX westbound empty coal train at Hawks Nest, West Virginia, January 2005 by Scott Lothes is one of roughly 80 photographs in the exhibition titled, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel. Please join me this Friday evening for a gallery talk for the exhibition, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel which is currently on view at the Monmouth Museum. This informal lecture will provide insight on work featured in the exhibition with a historical background on the rise, fall and rebirth of American railroads in the 20th Century and the artists that were driven to document them.

CSX westbound empty coal train at Hawks Nest, West Virginia, January 2005 by Scott Lothes is one of roughly 80 photographs in the exhibition titled, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel. Please join me this Friday evening for a gallery talk for the exhibition, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel which is currently on view at the Monmouth Museum. This informal lecture will provide insight on work featured in the exhibition with a historical background on the rise, fall and rebirth of American railroads in the 20th Century and the artists that were driven to document them.

Exhibition installation views courtesy of Benjamin Riley

Exhibition installation views courtesy of Benjamin Riley

The lecture will take place at the Monmouth Museum, Friday, December 12th, at 7PM and is open to the public with paid admission or museum membership. Museum admission is $7 per person.

Can't make it to the lecture? The show runs through January 4, 2015. For hours and additional information, please call the Museum at 732-747-2266, or visit the website at: www.monmouthmuseum.org.

The Monmouth Museum, a private, non-profit organization, is located at 765 Newman Springs Road, in Lincroft, NJ.

Monmouth Exhibition: Upcoming Lecture

Great Northern Railway. Westbound freight train, west of Havre, Montana, 1968 by noted photographer David Plowden is one of roughly 80 photographs in the exhibition titled, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel.

Great Northern Railway. Westbound freight train, west of Havre, Montana, 1968 by noted photographer David Plowden is one of roughly 80 photographs in the exhibition titled, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel.

Friends, Please join me next Friday evening for a gallery talk for the exhibition, All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscape they Travel which is currently on view at the Monmouth Museum. This informal lecture will provide insight on work featured in the exhibition with a historical background on the rise, fall and rebirth of American railroads in the 20th Century and the artists that were driven to document them. Featuring the work of eight noted photographers and a selection of vintage travel and advertising posters the exhibition and lecture highlight the history and nostalgia the railroads evoke and the landscape it has traveled and changed for over 150 years.

Exhibition installation views courtesy of Benjamin Riley

Exhibition installation views courtesy of Benjamin Riley

The lecture will take place at the Monmouth Museum, Friday, December 12th, at 7PM and is open to the public with paid admission or museum membership. Museum admission is $7 per person.

Can't make it to the lecture? The show runs through January 4, 2015.

The Monmouth Museum, a private, non-profit organization, is located at 765 Newman Springs Road, in Lincroft, NJ. For hours and additional information, please call the Museum at 732-747-2266, or visit the website at: www.monmouthmuseum.org.

New Line: PRR's Lancaster Cut-Off

1912 Sanborn Map Illustrating the addition of the Lancaster Cut-Off which would divert traffic away from the PRR's congested Old Main through the city center. Map collection of the Penn State University Library.

1912 Sanborn Map Illustrating the addition of the Lancaster Cut-Off which would divert traffic away from the PRR's congested Old Main through the city center. Map collection of the Penn State University Library.

Opening in 1883 the Lancaster Cut-Off was part of a series of mainline improvements to eliminate excessive grades, traffic congestion and operational issues associated with the original mainline through downtown Lancaster. Under the direction of chief engineer William H. Brown a two-track bypass running along the city’s north side was constructed between Dillerville and an interlocking named CG where it joined the existing mainline just west of the Conestoga River. Though originally designed to divert only through trains away from Lancaster the improved line became the preferred routing because of the continuing problems operating through the busy city center. As a result service to the station on Queen Street declined, stirring complaints from city officials who demanded better passenger rail service.

Interior view of the concourse bridge waiting area in the 1928-29 passenger station that replaced the antiquated Queen Street station facility on the Old Main.

Interior view of the concourse bridge waiting area in the 1928-29 passenger station that replaced the antiquated Queen Street station facility on the Old Main.

Complaints continued well into the 20th century until city officials and the PRR began negotiations for a new passenger station to be located on the Cut-Off. Construction of the new facility began in August of 1928 and was dedicated dedication on April 27th of 1929. Situated between Lititz Pike and North Prince Street the beautiful brick and limestone colonial revival styled station featured a second floor waiting room with large arched windows and limestone walls. A concourse bridge over the mainline connected the waiting room with 2 high level platforms while baggage was moved via a subterranean tunnel and elevators from the neighboring express building located immediately west of the station.

This plate drawing of the consolidated CORK interlocking plant circa 1963 illustrates the expansiveness of the consolidated territory which was once controlled be three separate towers. Plate drawing collection of The Broad Way.

This plate drawing of the consolidated CORK interlocking plant circa 1963 illustrates the expansiveness of the consolidated territory which was once controlled be three separate towers. Plate drawing collection of The Broad Way.

The construction of the new facility also necessitated additional track capacity since the old line would be largely abandoned after this project was complete. Sidings and runners were added to the two main tracks through the station complex. A new interlocking tower aptly named Lancaster controlled the new station trackage in addition to consolidating three existing interlocking towers: DV (Dillerville) - junction with the Old Line, Cut-off, Columbia branch and H&L to Harrisburg, CG (Conestoga) junction of the old main, cut-off and mainline east and ES - junction with the New Holland Branch and end of the four track mainline just east of the Conestoga bridge. Later renamed Cork this standard design tower of the Depression era was constructed of brick with a copper clad bay and hip roof. Inside the tower a 67 lever Union Switch & Signal Model 14 interlocking machine controlled the expansive physical plant.

As built the Lancaster Cut-Off was intended to bypass traffic that did not service the City of Lancaster, today the route is the sole surviving mainline for Amtrak and Norfolk Southern operations based out of Dillerville. On the east end of the Cut-Off the grade of the Old Line can be spotted at former CG interlocking where the two lines split. (L) In the brush to the left you can make out the diverging path of the Old Main in the gap in the trees. (R) The expansive area around the main looking east is where the Old Line connected to the Cut-Off and mainline east. Just out of view is the Conestoga River Bridge.

As built the Lancaster Cut-Off was intended to bypass traffic that did not service the City of Lancaster, today the route is the sole surviving mainline for Amtrak and Norfolk Southern operations based out of Dillerville. On the east end of the Cut-Off the grade of the Old Line can be spotted at former CG interlocking where the two lines split. (L) In the brush to the left you can make out the diverging path of the Old Main in the gap in the trees. (R) The expansive area around the main looking east is where the Old Line connected to the Cut-Off and mainline east. Just out of view is the Conestoga River Bridge.

Cork remained operational into the 21st century, during the Keystone Corridor rebuild several revisions to the interlocking simplified the infrastructure in the area pairing out the various control points and retrofitting the old building with new CTC like control boards mounted directly to the old interlocking machine. By the close of the first quarter of 2013 Cork’s local control was cut-over to Amtrak’s centralized dispatching center in Delaware, ending 84 years of continual service under three different railroads. Despite the loss of CORK the PRR passenger station continues to serve the city of Lancaster  undergoing a slow and expensive renovation that will renew its facade and interior while adding modern amenities like climate control and new electrical systems. It is unclear to the author if additional retail spaces will be developed in the lower level but the facility seems to be ripe with opportunity for travelers who visit the county seat, home to a vibrant arts and tourism region. Only time will tell what the final development of the Lancaster passenger station will bring but today it continues to serve its intended purpose maintaining the Pennsylvania Railroad's presence in the city of Lancaster.

Monmouth Museum Exhibition Opens This Weekend!

Allegheny Summit, Tunnelhill, Pennsylvania. One of roughly 80 photographs in the exhibition "All Aboard, Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel" which opens Sunday, November 16th.

Allegheny Summit, Tunnelhill, Pennsylvania. One of roughly 80 photographs in the exhibition "All Aboard, Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel" which opens Sunday, November 16th.

Please join me this coming Sunday at the Monmouth Museum for the opening of, "All Aboard, Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel". This visually stunning and informative historical exhibition features the work of 8 renowned photographers spanning 70 years of railroad history and will be accompanied by historic travel posters from the private collection of Bennett Levin.

The Monmouth Museum Presents

All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel

Curated by Michael Froio

Opening Reception:Sunday, November 16, 3 – 5 pm is open to the public and free of charge

Can't make it to the opening? The show runs from November 16, 2014 through January 4, 2015

Museum admission is $7 per person

The Monmouth Museum, a private, non-profit organization, is located at 765 Newman Springs Road, in Lincroft, NJ. For hours and additional information, please call the Museum at 732-747-2266, or visit the website at: www.monmouthmuseum.org.

Upcoming Exhibition: Monmouth Museum

I am very excited to announce the Monmouth Museum's upcoming exhibition, "All Aboard, Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel" which was curated by yours truly! See below for the full press release and look forward to future posts on the artists featured in the exhibition!

Locomotive 5145 in Canadian Pacific Railway St. Luc Roundhouse, Montreal, Quebec, 1960. Photograph © David Plowden

Locomotive 5145 in Canadian Pacific Railway St. Luc Roundhouse, Montreal, Quebec, 1960. Photograph © David Plowden

The Monmouth Museum Presents

All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel

Curated by Michael Froio

November 16, 2014 – January 4, 2015

Opening Reception: Sunday, November 16, 3 – 5 pm

Gallery Talk with Curator Michael Froio: Friday, December 12, 7 pm

(LINCROFT, NJ) The Monmouth Museum presents All Aboard! Railroads and the Historic Landscapes They Travel, curated by Michael Froio. An Opening Reception will be held on Sunday, November 16, 3 - 5 pm, and a Gallery Talk will take place on Friday, December 12 at 7 pm, with Curator Michael Froio. The Opening Reception and Gallery Talk are free of charge. We are delighted to announce the Monmouth Museum Model Train Display will make its comeback with new, improved trains and updated network of track! The Friends of Monmouth Museum will present their Annual Holiday Tree, decorated with train and railroad memorabilia!

Railroads played a vital role in the development of the United States, providing the vehicle to feed the industrial revolution, the means to bridge the east and west coasts and the ability to move the American people, goods and raw materials over a network that greatly shaped the American landscape. All Aboard! is a celebration of railroads in the American landscape detailing some of the most transformative times in railroad history. This visually stunning and informative historical exhibition features the work of eight renowned photographers, including David Plowden, Jim Shaughnessy (both on loan from The Center for Railroad Photography and Art), Ron Wright, Mel Patrick, Scott Lothes, John Sanderson, Travis Dewitz and Guest Curator Michael Froio. Also featured are vintage travel and advertising posters (on loan from the Private Collection of Bennett Levin).  All Aboard! Railroads & The Historic Landscapes They Travel is an enchanting journey through the history and nostalgia the railroads evoke and the landscape they have traveled for over 150 years.

Michael Froio is an acclaimed professional photographer, associate professor and facilities manager for the Photography Program, part of the Antoinette Westphal College of Media Arts and Design at Drexel University in Philadelphia. Michael has received several grants and fellowships including a two-year Career Development Fellowship and Alumni Travel Grant with the Center for Emerging Visual Artists as well as a 2009 Individual Artist Fellowship from the New Jersey Council on the Arts. Michael has published articles with the National Railway Historical Society and presented lectures for the Center for Railroad Photography and Art, The Library Company of Philadelphia and various Chapters of the National Railway Historical Society across the country.

Dillerville: Lancaster's Western Gateway

Dillerville Junction was a complex interlocking controlling access to several important lines on the PRR in the northwestern corner of Lancaster. This remarkable view looking railroad west from the Lancaster Cut-Off depicts the new line veering off to the right connecting with the H&L line to Harrisburg. The old alignment of the H&L into Dillerville and Lancaster still exists and is where Rau's photographic train is sitting behind the interlocking tower. Straight ahead is the connection to the Columbia Branch while the tracks that fan off to the left from that line in the distance  are the original alignment and connection to the Old Main to the Queen Street station. The last line of note through the junction is the single track passing left to right in front of the tower crossing all of the PRR tracks at grade, this was the Reading Company's Lancaster Branch, part of its Reading & Columbia Division which terminated at the foot of North Prince Street. The meticulous landscaping, track and ballast work reflect a railroad that took great pride in their physical plant. Image circa 1888 by William H. Rau, Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

Dillerville Junction was a complex interlocking controlling access to several important lines on the PRR in the northwestern corner of Lancaster. This remarkable view looking railroad west from the Lancaster Cut-Off depicts the new line veering off to the right connecting with the H&L line to Harrisburg. The old alignment of the H&L into Dillerville and Lancaster still exists and is where Rau's photographic train is sitting behind the interlocking tower. Straight ahead is the connection to the Columbia Branch while the tracks that fan off to the left from that line in the distance  are the original alignment and connection to the Old Main to the Queen Street station. The last line of note through the junction is the single track passing left to right in front of the tower crossing all of the PRR tracks at grade, this was the Reading Company's Lancaster Branch, part of its Reading & Columbia Division which terminated at the foot of North Prince Street. The meticulous landscaping, track and ballast work reflect a railroad that took great pride in their physical plant. Image circa 1888 by William H. Rau, Collection of American Premier Underwriters, Inc. 

In 1835 Revolutionary War officer and Sheriff of Lancaster County, Adam Diller founded Dillerville, a one time separate settlement in Lancaster’s northwest corner. In June of the same year Diller would grant the Harrisburg & Lancaster Railroad a 1.5-acre plot to construct a depot. From these meager beginnings Dillerville would develop to become the western gateway of the Lancaster terminal, evolving with continual improvements after the PRR assumed control of the Philadelphia & Columbia and Harrisburg & Lancaster Railroads.

Originally the location where the PRR predecessors split away heading west on their respective routes, DV interlocking as it became known, developed into a far more complex facility with the addition of the Lancaster Cut-Off in 1883. The second know tower in this location was completed in 1884 for the new cut-off utilizing Armstrong levers to control lower quadrant semaphore signals and switch points throughout the junction. This tower was built in the typical style of that era with Victorian details including a slate shingled hip roof and center cupola similar to surviving examples like LEMO tower now located in Strasburg, PA and SHORE at Frankford Junction in Philadelphia. DV was an important facility, directing trains to the Columbia Branch, Old Main, H&L line to Harrisburg and the Lancaster Cut-Off / Mainline east. On either side of the interlocking there were several yards servicing industries on the Old Main and the later plants of Armstrong World Industries and its predecessors. Adding to the complexity of this interlocking was an at grade crossing of the R&C division of the Reading Company who’s Lancaster Branch terminated at the foot of Prince Street in the north west corner of the city.

This view looks west depicting the first tower at Dillerville around 1880. To the left is the Columbia Branch of the former P&C  and to the right is the former H&L to Harrisburg. Note the sign on this early wood frame octagonal switch tower which proclaims an exact distance of 69 and 30/100 miles to Philadelphia and 283 and 70/100 miles to Pittsburgh. Another noteworthy detail is the early signals utilized to govern traffic at the junction. As evident from Rau's photo in 1888 this junction would be greatly reconfigured with the addition of the Lancaster Cut-off. Photographer unknown, image courtesy of LancasterHistory.org, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

This view looks west depicting the first tower at Dillerville around 1880. To the left is the Columbia Branch of the former P&C  and to the right is the former H&L to Harrisburg. Note the sign on this early wood frame octagonal switch tower which proclaims an exact distance of 69 and 30/100 miles to Philadelphia and 283 and 70/100 miles to Pittsburgh. Another noteworthy detail is the early signals utilized to govern traffic at the junction. As evident from Rau's photo in 1888 this junction would be greatly reconfigured with the addition of the Lancaster Cut-off. Photographer unknown, image courtesy of LancasterHistory.org, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

In the late 1920s DV interlocking was part of a consolidation project in preparation for the opening of a new passenger station complex on the Cut-Off centralizing several towers into Lancaster Tower, which was later renamed Cork for its proximity to the PRR’s largest freight customer in the city, Crown Cork & Seal (Armstrong). Another component to this improvements program involved partial abandonment of the Old Line retaining only the segment from West Yard to the freight houses on Water Street. Dillerville Yard continued to serve as a local base of freight operations for the diverse manufacturing and agricultural consignees in the city and beyond on both the mainline and New Holland branch.

Views looking east and west from the footbridge off Liberty Street in the Dillerville area of Lancaster. (L) Looking west on the Old Main one can see the catenary poles of the Lancaster Cut-Off in the distance coming in from the right. At DV interlocking this line crossed at grade with the Columbia Branch and connected to the former H&L to head west to Harrisburg. (R) Looking east was the remaining segment of the former Old Main which recently terminated at the foot of Mulberry Street and Harrisburg Avenue. Here a bulk transfer trestle, crew base and engine storage area were all recently abandoned when NS completed the new H. Craig Lewis yard part of  the Lancaster Northwest Gateway redevelopment project. 

Views looking east and west from the footbridge off Liberty Street in the Dillerville area of Lancaster. (L) Looking west on the Old Main one can see the catenary poles of the Lancaster Cut-Off in the distance coming in from the right. At DV interlocking this line crossed at grade with the Columbia Branch and connected to the former H&L to head west to Harrisburg. (R) Looking east was the remaining segment of the former Old Main which recently terminated at the foot of Mulberry Street and Harrisburg Avenue. Here a bulk transfer trestle, crew base and engine storage area were all recently abandoned when NS completed the new H. Craig Lewis yard part of  the Lancaster Northwest Gateway redevelopment project. 

In 2009 Norfolk Southern, successor of PRR operations in the area (through the purchase of Conrail) began a major reconfiguration of Dillerville Yard in order to accommodate the $75 million Lancaster Northwest Gateway Project, which is developing acres of unused brown fields to provide expansion opportunities for both Lancaster General Hospital and Franklin & Marshal College. Earlier this year the last of the remaining PRR era facilities including the pedestrian bridge, trans-load facility and engine terminal were abandoned after NS dedicated new facilities in a yard named after the late H. Craig Lewis state senator and former NS VP of corporate affairs. Part of more than a century of urban renewal the Northwest Gateway Project is the last effort in removing all rail activity from the city center including the industries the railroads once served completing an effort that began in the 1880's with the construction of the Lancaster Cut-Off.

Lancaster Terminal: The Old Main

Postcard view of the ornate Victorian styled PRR station located at N. Queen and E. Chestnut Streets in the city of Lancaster. Collection of the author. 

Postcard view of the ornate Victorian styled PRR station located at N. Queen and E. Chestnut Streets in the city of Lancaster. Collection of the author. 

Lancaster Old Main: The original mainline of the Pennsylvania Railroad made a gentle southern arc from the area of Dillerville in the northwest corner of the city limits to where it crossed the Conestoga in the northeast, intersecting busy streets through the growing city of Lancaster. The line was the combination of routes built by the Philadelphia & Columbia (P&C) and Harrisburg & Lancaster (H&L) railroads. The P&C, part of the state built Mainline of Public Works, was a through route connecting Philadelphia to the east and Columbia to the west. The H&L was an early private venture that terminated in Lancaster connecting the P&C via its own mainline directly to Elizabethtown and Harrisburg. Shortly after the charter and beginning of construction on the mainline between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh the PRR contracted a 20-year agreement with the H&L in 1848, part of an effort to secure a direct route to Philadelphia. J. Edgar Thompson would accomplished this goal when the PRR finally assumed operations of the P&C in 1857, part of its $7.5 million purchase of the Mainline of Public Works. With the reorganization of both lines into the PRR, traffic patterns west from Lancaster evolved to a pattern familiar to contemporary operations with passenger trains favoring the more direct H&L and the P&C for freight traffic.

1912 map detail showing the congested area surrounding the original alignment of the Philadelphia and Columbia route which became the PRR's original mainline through Lancaster. The station was located at Queen and Chestnut Streets (location 25 on the map) and the freight terminal was on the corner of Prince and Walnut Streets (upper left from station). Map collection of the Penn State University Library

1912 map detail showing the congested area surrounding the original alignment of the Philadelphia and Columbia route which became the PRR's original mainline through Lancaster. The station was located at Queen and Chestnut Streets (location 25 on the map) and the freight terminal was on the corner of Prince and Walnut Streets (upper left from station). Map collection of the Penn State University Library

After the PRR purchased the P&C it immediately took initiatives to replace primitive station facilities run out of a local inn. The result was a beautiful train shed and station built between Queen and North Christian Streets parallel to Chestnut Street. While a drastic improvement from previous arrangements it would prove to be a stopgap measurement for the fast growing railroad. Larger operational issues existed to the west of the station in a maze of trackage servicing both PRR owned freight houses and numerous industries most of which was at grade with the city streets. Adding to the congestion was the connection to the Quarryville Branch and interchange with the Reading Company’s R&C Division all within the city limits.

Images detailing both the freight terminal and industrial tracks the spurred off the mainline (left) and the western view from the passenger station shed looking out on the crossing of N. Queen Street. These images reinforce the complicated and dangerous operating conditions the city and railroad faced on a daily basis. Both images courtesy of LancasterHistory.org, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

Images detailing both the freight terminal and industrial tracks the spurred off the mainline (left) and the western view from the passenger station shed looking out on the crossing of N. Queen Street. These images reinforce the complicated and dangerous operating conditions the city and railroad faced on a daily basis. Both images courtesy of LancasterHistory.org, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

Serving as the sole through route into the 1880’s the PRR addressed the limitations of the Old Main by constructing a bypass known as the Lancaster Cut-Off. After the 1883 opening of this new route only trains serving Lancaster navigated the city route. Despite the growth and increasing need for more rail transportation the unfortunate reality was the mighty PRR was diverting more and more trains away from the Queen Street station in favor of the new by-pass. The net result meant mounting political pressure on the PRR from city government to provide residents and visitors improved rail transportation, an issue  that would continue well into the 1920’s. This era marks the beginning of an effort of urban renewal that continues to change how people and the railroads interface with the city of Lancaster. In future posts we will continue the discussion of how and when the PRR diverted operations away from the Old Main and how successors have continued to revise and improve local facilities and operations.